What You Need to Know to Visit Paris

A short walk from Notre Dame, across the Seine, is the lively Boulevard St Michel that bisects the famous Boulevard Saint Germain. St. Michel, better known as the «Boul Mish» has an abundance of appealing French bistros. Nearby is the Palais de Justice in whose courtyard sits the enchanting Ste. Chapelle, a small chapel renowned for its astonishing stained glass windows, best to be seen in the late afternoon. There are frequent chamber music concerts held in the upper level of the chapel surrounded by these windows…not to be missed! Walk along the Blvd Saint Germain and grab an espresso with a croissant or a glass of wine at legendary Deux Magots opposite the Eglise St. Germaine de Pres. You might even see the ghosts of Piaf, Simone de Beauvoir, Sartre, et al.

Next saunter along the quay to the Pont Des Arts to the Louvre Museum where I.M. Pei’s glass pyramid overpowers the grand entrance and upsets some purists. But I love it. Of course, this iconic museum achieves even greater notoriety in «The Da Vinci Code». See the Mona Lisa, Winged Victory, Venus de Milo and other masterworks. Please don’t let that famous New Yorker cartoon be your guide, in which a «touriste Americaine» dashes into the Louvre shouting «Quick, which way is the Mona Lisa, I’m double parked!»

When you exit the Louvre, turn left then right along the Quai and over the Pont Royal bridge to the Musee D’Orsay, a superb transformation of Paris’ grand old railroad station of the same name. It is one of the world’s most remarkable museums entirely devoted to all the artistic fields of the second half of the XIXth century (Impressionist Period) with over 3000 works on three levels. Don’t miss the great rooftop photo ops.

Or if you prefer, when you leave the museum, walk through the Petite Carrousel, a small replica of the L’Arc de Triomphe. From this point, on a clear day, the view extends through the Tuilleries Gardens, the Place de la Concorde, up the Champs Elysee, crowned by the majestic Arc de Triomphe. It is a long stroll but well worth the effort. When hunger pangs set in, there are any number of bistros and cafes along the Champs Elysee. You can’t get better «steak frites» anywhere else. Continue along until you reach l’Arc de Triomphe. Take the elevator to the viewing roof for Paris’ best photo ops.

Back at street level head for the Eiffel Tower. You’ll need this long walk to burn those French pastry calories and it sure beats the treadmill. Take the elevator to the top of the tower where you can dine in one of the two restaurants. If you want to have dinner, reservations are a must. You can call either «Altitudes 95» located on the first «etage» or «Le Jules Verne» situated on the second «etage».

Now for a treat! Walk a few blocks to the entrance of Des Egouts, the sewers of Paris. You may ask «Is this your idea of seduction?» Yes. (I was seduced here many years ago!!!) You descend into the sewers only to find a wonderful museum that depicts the history of this underground treasure. Remember Jean Valjean from Les Miserables? These were the escape routes he used. No need for a nose clothespin, the air is clean. Now how many people do you know who have done this? Great conversation fodder when you get home.

Montmatre is a must see. Visit in the daytime and have one of the local artist do a quick souvenir sketch of you in the square to the left of Sacre Coeur, the beautiful domed cathedral. You are also near the Moulin Rouge of Toulouse-Lautrec fame. A bit of a tourist trap, but hey, when was the last time you saw someone do the can-can who wasn’t in drag? Try it, Mikey, you’ll like it!

Of course, this is a minimal look at Paris. There is so much more to experience; i.e. the Canal St. Martin, the Marche aux Puces (fabulous flea market in the north of the city); the Place des Voges with the Victor Hugo Museum tucked into one corner; endless fabulous (there, I got fabulous in twice) restaurants, one better than the other; the Opera at the Bastille; the Jewish quarter (Joe Goldenberg’s restaurant..yum) and so much more. We may have missed April in Paris, but May through November offers the perfect time to visit «Gay Paree». Paris is a must!

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Interesting Facts About Olympic Nations – Great Britain

John MacGregor (Scottish) invented the kayak /canoe. In 1865, he founded the Royal Canoe Club. Kayak made its debut at the 1936 Olympics in Berlin (Germany).

From 1896 to 2004, Great Britain has won 668 Summer Olympics medals, including 188 gold. The United Kingdom has more gold medals than Greece, Cuba, Spain, Brazil, Argentina and India combined…

Sebastian Newbold Coe was selected to carry Great Britain’s flag during the closing ceremony at the 1984 Los Angeles Summer Olympic Games. From 1980 to 1984, he won four Olympic medals (800m and 1500m). Coe is an iconic figure in the world of sports.

Great Britain is the birthplace of table tennis. This sport was a demonstration sport at the 1988 Seoul Games and went on to become an «Olympic sport» in the Barcelona Games in 1992.

In the 1910s, Great Britain’s national football team won its third-ever gold medal at the Summer Olympics in Stockholm (Sweden).

The United Kingdom has many famous sportspeople: Jonathan Edwards (athletics / England), Sally Gunnell (track & field/ England), David Wilkie (aquatics /Scotland), Sebastian Newbold Coe (athletics / England), Samuel Ferris (marathon / Northern Ireland), Allan Wipper Wells (athletics/ Scotland), Steve Michael James Ovett (track and field / England), Colin Ray Jackson (athletics/ Wales), Cris Hoy (cycling / Scotland).

Unlike Japan, West Germany, Canada and Kenya, Great Britain / United Kingdom did not boycott the 1980 Olympics in the Soviet Union. Margaret Hilda Thatcher ( Prime Minister of the United Kingdom / 1979-1990 ) did not support the boycott. GB sent 214 athletes to the Moscow Games (won 21 medals). Ironically, Bermuda, Cayman islands, Antigua-Barbuda and Hong Kong ( British territories ) boycotted the Games.

Kate Howey was the flag bearer of the British Olympic team at the Athens Olympics in 2004. Who is she? Kate was a judoka…

England dominated the medals at the First Commonwealth Games in 1930. But over the last three decades, England has been overtaken by Australia.

Glasgow (Scotland) will be host to the Commonwealth Games in 2014.

The United Kingdom is the birthplace of boxing. London hosted the first boxing championships in 1867. James Figg and John Broughton were the first boxers in the history…

Linford Christie was one of the greatest sprinters in the past century. Great Britain’s Linford won the gold medal in the 100m at the Barcelona Games in 1992. He was born on April 2, 1960 in Saint Andrew, Jamaica (Caribbean).

British boxers won all the gold medals in the Olympics in 1908. The champions were: Henry Thomas ( bantamweight / 54kg), Richard Gunn ( featherweight / 57kg ), Frederick Grace ( lightweight / 60kg ), John Douglas (middleweight / 75kg), Albert Oldham (super heavyweight / 91%2B kg).

The Montreal Olympic Games was inaugurated by Queen Elizabeth II ( Head of State of Canada) in 1976.

Great Britain introduced field hockey into India and Pakistan. This European country was the first ever men’s field hockey Olympic champion (1908).

This country has hosted many international Games/ tournaments:

The 1897 Cycling World Cup-Glasgow, Scotland

The 1904 Cycling World Cup-London, England

The 1908 Summer Olympics-London, England

The 1934 British Empire Games-London, England

The 1938 Baseball World Cup-London, England

The 1948 Summer Olympics-London, England

The 1958 British Empire Games-Cardiff, Wales

The 1966 FIFA World Cup-London, England

The 1970 British Commonwealth Games-Edinburgh, Scotland

The 1975 FISA World Rowing Cup-Notthingham, England

The 1971 Cycling World Cup-Leicester, England

The 1986 Commonwealth Games-Edinburgh, Scotland

The 1991 World University Games-Sheffield, England

The 2002 Commonwealth Games-Manchester, England

Bermuda ( British territory / Caribbean ) won an Olympic medal at the 1976 Montreal Games. The medalist was Clarence Hills (boxing). It competed in the Summer Games 15 times: Berlin-1936, London-1948, Helsinki-1952, Melbourne-1956, Rome-1960, Tokyo-1964, Mexico City-1968, Munich-1972, Montreal-1976, Los Angeles-1984, Seoul-1988, Barcelona-1992, Atlanta-1996, Sydney-2000, Athens-2004. Bermuda has also competed in the Winter Games: France-1992, Norway-1994, Japan-1998, USA-2002, Italy-2006…

The United Kingdom has many foreign-born sportspeople : Tessa Sanderson (Jamaica / track & field ),Curtis Osano (Kenya / soccer), Blair Blenman (Barbados / weightlifting ), John Barnes (Jamaica / football ), Cliff Drysdale ( South Africa / tennis ), Fatima Whitbread ( Cyprus / athletics ), Bamlerdele «Dele» Adebola (Nigeria / soccer), Zola Budd ( South Africa / track & field ), Judy Simpson (Jamaica / athletics ), Eniola Aluko ( Nigeria /soccer ), Simon Lessing ( South Africa / triathlon ), Clive Longe (Guyana / track and field ), Natalie Steward (South Africa / swimming), Nedeum Onuoha ( Nigeria /soccer ).

Like Dan O´Brien and Jim Thorpe, Daley Thompson was one of the best decathletes in the 20th century.

Fact File

Name: Francis Morgan Thompson ( best known as Daley Thompson)

Nationality: British

Ancestry: Nigerian (Scottish mother and Nigerian father)

Born: 30 / 7 / 1958

Place of birth: Notting Hill, London,UK

Personal motto: «Competition is my life, winning is my only goal»

Sport: Decathlon (track & field)

Major individual medals

1977: European Junior Championships-Gold medal

1978: Edmonton Commonwealth Games-Gold medal

1978: European Championships-Gold medal

1980: Moscow Olympic Games-Gold medal

1982: Brisbane Commonwealth Games-Gold medal

1983: World Championships-Gold medal

1984: Los Angeles Olympic Games-Gold medal

1986: Edinburgh Commonwealth Games-Gold medal

1986: European Championships-Gold medal

England Wayne Rooney to Watch His Foul Language in the World Cup

Footballers must be aware of their language on the pitch during World Cup 2010. The England team striker will have to be extra careful as he is infamous for his swearing in English Premier League games. Indeed, this is not the first time officials will be looking out for bad mouth footballers. Wayne Rooney was sent off during a friendly game against another local South African football club.

The referees in the last England Vs USA game were astute to any swearing in English. The Brazilian referees were given crash courses on the use of profanity in English before the game in order to keep potty mouth players under control. We all know that it is common for football players to swear, so referees will only be penalising footballers that go above and beyond in their swearing, which Wayne Rooney is the likely candidate. All World Cup referees have been given directions to book any players who swear at them and if appropriate, they will send the player off the pitch. There were also rumours that FIFA had sent a list of English swear words to world cup referees for quick reference.

Most people will acknowledge that Wayne Rooney is a fantastic player because of his fiery temper. Steven Gerrard, the England team captain said that Rooney is always on the edge and that is just the type of player Rooney is. Rooney is said to be inclined to listen to Gerrard due to their similar origin from Liverpool Football Club. Gerrard’s role as the team captain will be absolutely vital in keeping Rooney focused on the pitch and to keep communicating with the fiery tempered striker.

Rooney will have to be on guard and not slip his tongue during the World Cup playoffs. In fact, during the England Vs USA game, Rooney seemed to have kept his use of colourful language to a minimum even though he still showed a fiery facial expression to the referee when he was tackled by the opponent. This is certainly a good start and hopefully he will keep at it.

As stated before, most football players tend to swear during the game, be it in English or any other language. However, as the English Premier League is the most broadcasted football league in the world, English players’ conduct has been under close observations by many officials. With English language firmly established as the international lingua, the English swear words have also become widely used by many people to a point even those who do not speak the language can swear in English. A good example is the F-word being one of the most well known English words around the world, be it in Asia or Africa. This is not surprising at all when Hollywood movies usually feature a few F-words in their dialogue. The F-word has also taken on a cool image amongst the younger generation.

That said, there is still a way around this problem for Wayne Rooney, or for all English speaking football players for that matter. If you are going to swear, just make sure you choose a different language other than English.

An Uneasy Relationship – England Vs The Rest of The World

As a nation that once laid claim to the world's largest Empire, the United Kingdom has often traded blows with countries across the globe.

Politically, many British people often look upon Europe and its increasing influence in their lives as a source of annoyance. With specific reference to England, the English are known for their own patriotic beliefs and mannerisms. Whether it be staunchly in favor of keeping the pound or sometimes even something as trivial as our predisposition for tea drinking as a tool of social cohesion, our European cousins ​​and those further afield often deride us as 'Little Englanders'.

When it comes to football then, it is no surprise that such squabbles manifest themselves. In late February, there was the furore surrounding claims in the tabloid press that England's training complex for the impending World Cup in South Africa was so far half-built and ramshackle, some even going so far as to describe it as 'a dump'.

The £ 20 million Royal Bafokeng Sports Campus near Rustenburg, the venue for England's first game against USA, has ignited English passions and prompted hasty rebuttals from those abroad. Although the accommodation is of a high standard, the training and medical facilities are still far from complete.

After this, following his recent visit, England manager Fabio Capello stated that he was happy with the progress being made.

South Africans, including World Cup ambassador and ballerina Andile Ndlovu have rallied round their country as it bids to host the final tournament yet. The spokesman for the Bafokeng sports complex, Martin Bekker, said that "the foreign media, especially the English, have lacked the courtesy to find out from us how preparations are going."

This is not the first incident involving England, its football fans and its national press engaging in verbal warfare and it certainly will not be the last.

One only has to look at certain authority figures in the world football and the chagrin they draw from the English to examine the roots of animosity between 'us and them'. The President of FIFA, the world's governing body, Sepp Blatter and his UEFA counterpart Michel Platini have all voiced their views on the state of English football.

Likewise Jack Warner, the FIFA Vice-President and head of its CONCACAF region is another who petitions condemnation. In his case, it seems he's a complicated individual who has a 'Jekyll and Hyde' approach to England. Once he was quoted as saying 'nobody in Europe likes England' yet he is supposedly one of the supporters for our 2018 World Cup bid.

Meanwhile Blatter is considered by some as anti-English, a man who never has a good word to say about the country or its football. During the Cristiano Ronaldo transfer saga, Blatter was open in saying that the player should move to Real Madrid and that keeping him at Manchester United adjusted to "modern slavery."

Clearly he is hopelessly ignorant of the treatment suffered by the real slaves of the past and how it bears little relevance to highly-paid footballers. His 6 + 5 rule, designed to cur the number of foreign players in teams and enhance their domestic number is somewhat noble in its intent although it has been interpreted as a direct attack on the English clubs, which is boosted by a large overseas contingent, have recently dominated the competition.

Michel Platini has also displayed sour grapes over England's success in Europe. One of his quotes, relating football finances, states that he wants to "create a situation where every team has a chance of winning and there is a more level playing field. and financial fair play, but sometimes you do not have that in England. "

Although England and its press often feel aggrieved at attacks from abroad, Platini in particular does have a point when he claims to be concerned about foreign ownership and increasing debt mountains.

One only has to look at the forlorn situation at Portsmouth to understand where he is coming from. If England's biggest clubs such as Manchester United and Liverpool did not rely on huge income streams to keep them tapping over, the problem would become cataclysmic, not just for English football but for the entire game.

No matter, England's uneasy relationship with the rest of the world is likely to continue for some time yet as we typically resist interference from beyond our shores.

4 Larger-Than-Life Facts About the Tennessee Titans

When do historical figures become immortal? Arguably, that happens when they creep into our day-to-day lives. For instance, consider the Titans. In Greek mythology, the Titans included the twelve children of the gods Ge (Earth), and Uranus (Heaven). The Titans were huge and powerful. Thus, the Titanic ship was named as such. Today we say that «Jane is a business Titan,» or that «Shakespeare was a titan of Renaissance literature.» Here are some interesting facts about some other titans, the Tennessee Titans:

1. The origins of the «Titans» are Greece and Memphis

The Tennessee Titans were formerly the Houston Oilers, where they played from 1960-1996. After relocating to Nashville, Tennessee in 1997, the team played two NFL seasons as the Tennessee Oilers. The team’s owner, Bud Adams, then decided to change the team’s nickname. It is common knowledge that the Titans were powerful gods from Greek mythology. However, did you know that people often refer to Nashville as the «Athens of the South»?

2. The Titans have earned playoff spots in nearly half of their seasons

Since moving to Tennessee, the Titans played 11 seasons from 1997-2007. Within that timeframe, the Titans have qualified for the playoffs during five seasons (1999, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2007), or nearly half of their tenure in Tennessee. Additionally, they have been division champions twice (2000, 2002), have played in two AFC championship games (1999, 2002), and have made one Super Bowl appearance (1999). Indeed, the Titans have been titans in the NFL.

3. Houston Oilers/Tennessee Titans players have earned NFL records

Throughout their history, various Houston Oilers and Tennessee Titans players have ended the regular season as leaders in multiple categories, including:

o Interceptions: Mike Reinfeldt: 12 (1979)

o Kickoff Returns: Bobby Jancik (1962: 30.3; 1963: 29.3)

o Passer Rating: Steve McNair: 100.4 (2003)

o Passing Touchdowns: Warren Moon: 33 (1990)

o Punting: Craig Hentrich: 47.2 (1998)

o Punt Returns: Pacman Jones: 12.9 (2006)

o Rushing: Earl Campbell (1978, 1979, 1980)

o Touchdowns: Earl Bambell: 19 (19 rushing) (1979)

4. Since 1997, the Titans have played in three stadiums

After moving to Tennessee from Texas, the Titans’ temporary home was Memphis’ Liberty Bowl. The Oilers played their first game in Tennessee in the Liberty Bowl, defeating the Oakland Raiders in overtime, by 24-21.

After one season in Memphis, the Titans’ big brass decided that the team should move to Nashville. Thus, they signed a one-year contract to play at Vanderbilt University’s stadium.

By the year 1999, the Oilers became the Titans, and had a new stadium to play in: Adelphia Coliseum. Interestingly, the stadium itself also underwent two name changes. It was The Coliseum from 2002-2005; and since 2006, has been LP Field.

Since moving from Texas to Tennessee, that Titans have created a fascinating franchise history. That began with their new nickname. After finishing in second place in the entire league, the team hopes to take the next giant step: an NFL championship. Cheer on the Tennessee Titans to victory, using quality NFL merchandise!

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The 1932 NFL Championship Game

The Portsmouth Times called it «a sham battle on a Tom Thumb gridiron.» But, while the field may have been Lilliputian, the impact of the game on the National Football League was Brobdingnagian. It was the oddest game in NFL history, a fitting climax to one of the league’s oddest finishes.

Late in the 1932 season, it looked as if the Green Bay Packers were headed for their fourth straight NFL championship. They had an 10-1-1 record while their closest pursuers, the Chicago Bears and Portsmouth Spartans, had only nine victories between them. But the Bears and Spartans had just one loss apiece, to go with a whole bunch of ties.

On December 4, the Packers played their sixth straight game on the road, at Portsmouth. The Spartans had a 5-1-4 record going into the game. In Chicago, the Bears (4-1-6) were hosting the Giants, who had handed the Packers their only loss in New York three weeks earlier.

Under today’s method of figuring the standings, the Packers would have had the championship wrapped up. A tie now counts as a half-loss, half-win. But in 1932 a tie simply didn’t count; it was as if the game had never been played.

After Portsmouth beat Green Bay, 19-0, and the Bears beat the Giants, 6-0, the Packers were suddenly out of the running. Portsmouth’s season was over, but the Packers had one game left, against the Bears in Chicago. If the Packers won that game, the Spartans would be the new champions. If the Bears won, they’d be tied with Portsmouth for first place.

And that’s what happened. The Bears took a 9-0 victory on a snowy field with the temperature around zero. So the standings looked like this, with ties eliminated:

 	               W	L	Pct.

Chicago 6 1 .857
Portsmouth 6 1 .857
Green Bay 10 3 .769

Under today’s method, it would have looked like this:

 	               W	L	T	Pct.

Green Bay 10 3 1 .750
Portsmouth 6 1 4 .727
Chicago 6 1 6 .692

The NFL had no policy for dealing with a tie for first place at the end of the season. The league didn’t even handle scheduling–that was up to the teams themselves, so it was also up to the Bears and Spartans to figure out a way of breaking the tie. They agreed on a game at Chicago on December 11. It was not, formally, a post-season championship game, but a regular-season game tacked on at the end of the schedule.

Chicago was the obvious site for the game. With attendance down because of the Depression, both teams needed the money that a big crowd at Wrigley Field would bring in. But, because of the weather, the game between the Bears and the Packers had drawn only 5,000 fans, even with the possibility of a championship on the line, and the cold and snow continued as the championship game approached.

On Thursday, December 8, Chicago co-owner George Halas met with Potsy Clark, the Portsmouth coach, and Joe Carr. the president of the NFL, to propose moving the game indoors to Chicago Stadium. He had a precedent: The Bears and Cardinals had played an exhibition game there in 1930. He also had the weather as an argument. Chicago Stadium could hold about 16,000 spectators, and might well be filled for the game, which would probably draw only 5,000 or fewer outdoors. Clark and Carr agreed to the move, and players on both teams unanimously approved.

There was one final hurdle. The Bears had a contract that required them to play their home games at Wrigley Field. But Bill Veeck Sr., the owner of the ballpark, agreed to release them from the contract for this one game.

Chicago Stadium was primarily the home rink for the Chicago Blackhawks, but it was also used for boxing matches and other events. During the week before the football game, it had hosted a circus, so the concrete floor was covered with several inches of dirt. Truckloads of dirt, wood shavings, and bark were piled on top of that base to provide more cushioning. It didn’t however, provide much traction.

Many years later, Jim Foster got the idea for Arena Football by sketching the diagram of half a football field over the outline of a hockey rink. That was much the way the field was laid out in 1932. The arena floor was only about 80 by 50 yards at its widest dimensions. The football field compressed into that area was 60 yards from goal line to goal line and 45 yards from sideline to sideline. The end lines were rounded, and the 12-foot-high hockey dasher boards formed a fence that surrounded the whole area. The fence was about 15 feet from the sidelines at midfield (the 30-yard line), allowing room for the benches, but it almost touched the field at the goal lines and actually curved through the area where the end zones should have been. Goalposts were erected at only end of the field, and they were on the goal line rather than the end line.

Some special rules were adopted, based on the rules that had been used for a 1930 exhibition game in the stadium. Kickoffs were made from the 10-yard line and, after a kickoff return, the ball was moved back 20 yards. Field goals were prohibited. On a touchback, the ball was brought out to the 10-yard line instead of the 20.

If the ball went out of bounds, it was brought in just one yard from the sidelines under the rules in effect in 1932. Because of the proximity of the fence at Chicago Stadium, the teams agreed that the ball would be brought in 10 yards and the team in possession would have to forfeit a down. (Some accounts say 15 yards.)

Sportswriters generally expected the shortened field to produce a high-scoring game. The Bears were definitely favored, mainly because the Spartans were without their best player, Dutch Clark. A charter member of the Pro Football Hall of Fame, Clark was the quarterback on the All-Pro team six times in his eight-year NFL career. A dangerous runner, excellent kicker, and reliable passer, he led the league in scoring in 1932. But he had returned to his alma mater, Colorado College, as basketball coach immediately after Portsmouth’s victory over Green Bay and the school wouldn’t release him from his duties to play against the Bears.

Nevertheless, the Spartans pretty much controlled the first half, thanks to the running of Glenn Presnell. They were in scoring range twice and probably would have had a 6-0 halftime lead if field goals had been allowed. Near the end of the second quarter, Portsmouth faced fourth down at the Bears’ 6-yard line and Presnell carried the ball on the cutback play out of the single wing. As he tried to make his cut into the hole, he lost his footing on the loose dirt and went down without being touched. Presnell was certain that he would have scored if he hadn’t slipped.

But the game was still scoreless with about ten minutes left in the game, when Dick Nesbitt intercepted a pass thrown by Clark’s replacement, Ace Gutowsky, and returned it to Portsmouth’s 7-yard line, where he was pushed out of bounds. The ball was brought in 10 (or 15) yards from the sideline and the Bears were charged with a down, under the special rule. On second down, fullback Bronko Nagurski smashed down to the 1-yard line, but he lost a yard on the next play, bringing up fourth-and-goal at the 2. Once again, Nagurski took a handoff and headed toward the line. But he stopped before he got there, took a step or two backward, and threw a touchdown pass to Red Grange.

A furious Potsy Clark charged onto the field, protesting that Nagurski hadn’t been 5 yards behind the line of scrimmage when he threw the ball, as required at the time. But referee Bobby Cahn ruled that it was a legal forward pass and he allowed the touchdown, Tiny Engebretsen kicked the extra point to give the Bears a 7-0 lead. A little later, a bad snap went over the head of Portsmouth punter Mule Wilson and rolled through the end zone for a safety, making the final score 9-0.

Reports of attendance range from 11,000 to more than 15,000. The most reliable figure, though, seems to be 9,623 paid admissions, plus «several hundred Annie Oakleys,» meaning complimentary tickets. That number appeared in the Portsmouth Times and probably came directly from team management, based on the Spartans’ share of the gate receipts. Whatever the exact number, it was undoubtedly a lot more than would have turned out for a game in the snow and cold at Wrigley Field.

Each Chicago player was paid $240 and each Portsmouth player received $175 for the game, from receipts of about $15,000. The Bears had the full 22-man roster, but Portsmouth had only 16 players, so the players’ share was just over $8,000. Other expenses are unknown, but renting the stadium and getting it ready for a football game must have eaten up quite a lot of the other $7,000 or so.

Regardless of the financial outcome, though, the game was considered a success. At their meeting in Pittsburgh in February, 1933, NFL owners adopted three rules changes inspired by the championship game:

1. The ball was to be moved 10 yards in from the sideline after going out of bounds, without costing the offensive team a down, and hashmarks were added to the field.

2. The goalposts were moved from the end line to the goal line.

3. A forward pass was allowed from anywhere behind the line of scrimmage. (A still-disgruntled Potsy Clark reportedly said, «Nagurski will pass from anywhere, so we might as well make it legal,» when he voted for the change.)

Those changes helped to increase scoring and noticeably reduced ties. In 1932, only three of the NFL’s eight teams scored more than 100 points, led by the Bears with 160. The following season, five teams scored more than 100 points; the New York Giants led the way with a whopping 244 and the Packers were next with 170. The number of ties was cut in half, from 10 in 1932 to five in 1933.

At the urging of George Preston Marshall of the Boston Braves (now the Washington Redskins), owners decided at their July meeting to reorganize the NFL into Eastern and Western Divisions, with a post-season championship game between the division winners. Marshall reasoned that, since the impromptu championship game of 1932 had won unprecedented coverage for the league, an annual championship game would be a terrific showcase for professional football, like baseball’s World Series. Of course, that game has evolved into a nonpareil media event called the Super Bowl.

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Soccer Psychology – The Difference Between Winning and Losing

In today’s game of soccer most would argue that the most important person in a team is the coach. But a new position has arisen from the depths of the grandstand and his importance has significantly increased. Can you guess who it is?

Big clubs all over the world are employing Sports psychologists for help and some have even put them on as full time staff. Sports psychology has become the next boom industry as clubs and coaches have discovered the power of soccer psychology.

The difference between winning and losing at the highest level can be separated by a thin white line. All players are extremely fit, skillful, strong and quick. But how many players are confident and mentally strong? Clubs have discovered this and have added psychology to their growing list of weapons.

Players these days have pushed their physical capabilities to the limit and the competitive edge has virtually flattened out. That’s until mental warfare stepped in with the arrival of soccer psychology.

Science has proven that psychology and the right mindset influences and improves soccer performance. Sports psychology also identifies weaknesses and offers counseling to players who might be suffering from a lack of confidence and low self-esteem. They can also monitor motivational levels within a team and assess the whole team on an individual basis.

Soccer psychologists can also identify the different personalities within the team and ensure that these personalities don’t clash and work together. Remember, a champion team will always beat a team of champions. Soccer psychologists make the transition from a team to a championship team look very simple. By correcting the mindset of the players and increasing the player’s confidence the dream of winning silverware becomes a reality.

Soccer over the years has claimed its fair share of victims. Players that have lost all confidence and cannot perform at the levels required have inevitably been shown the door at their respective clubs. How can we stop this? Most players that have lost their confidence also suffer from low self esteem. With low self esteem comes the nerves and anxiety. If you have this problem within your team, the use of a soccer psychologist will solve all your problems. They will help your players relax and also use mental imagery to build on their shattered confidence without even touching a soccer ball.

Sports psychology has been directly linked to team spirit. The greater the team spirit, the greater chance you have of winning trophies. That’s why we see the smaller clubs of Europe beating some of the heavy weights in the champion’s league. Are the players better at the smaller clubs? Or do they have team spirit? From watching the champion’s league, it’s clearly evident what the smaller clubs lack in talent they make up in spirit and confidence.

The main purpose of psychology in soccer is to prevent the players feeling like failures when they lose. By eliminating this feeling, psychologists are protecting the players self esteem. Could self esteem and confidence be the secret ingredient all the big clubs share?

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