Football Stadiums of Istanbul

Turks are one of the nations that are fond of football. They try not to miss any match of their favorite teams, and are avid fans. It is by no means surprising, that in Istanbul there are many stadiums, and the majority of them correspond to the standards of the IOC. The most famous stadiums of Istanbul are Ataturk Olympic Stadium, Fenerbahce Sukru Saracoglu Stadium, Besiktas Inonu Stadium, and Ali Sami Yen Stadium.

Besiktas Inonu Stadium

The project of this stadium was elaborated by an Italian architect Paolo Vietti Violi. It was opened in Besiktas district in 1947, and had 16,000 seats. Then its name was the Mithat-pasha (the drafter of the first Turkish Constitution) stadium, and Ismet Inonu, the follower of Ataturk and the second presdient of the Turkish Republic participated at the opening ceremony. In 1973 the stadium got its new name in honor of Ismet Inonu, and till nowadays it is called Besiktas Inonu Stadium.

The place of the construction is very convenient: the stadium was built on the spot of the Dolmabahce palace stables, near the Bosporus. It is, probably, the only football stadium, where the two parts of the world – Europe and Asia – are seen from. In addition, magnificent views of the Dolmabahce palace and mosque, and the Bosporus open from the upper grandstands of the stadium. After being reconstructed in 2004 according to the standards of the UEFA, the stadium got the highest category Elite.

In the nearest future there will be another reconstruction, when the stadium will nearly completely be pulled down, and a new stadium, with 42,000 seats and transparent slip roof, will be built. Only one grandstand will be restored and preserved – Eski Acik – for it is considered the architectural monument. In addition, architects plan to build near the stadium a 5 star hotel, congress-center, shopping center, and parking area.

This stadium is the host field of the Besiktas football team, but other clubs as Galatasaray and Fenerbahce played here. However, it remains a place, where Black Eagles (an unofficial name of Besiktas players) defeated the teams of Barcelona, Liverpool, Milan, and Paris Saint Germain.

Ali Sami Yen Stadium

This stadium, which hosts Galatasaray football club, was opened in 1964. It was named after the founder of this team and their first president Ali Sami Yen, who later became the President of the National Olympic Committee of Turkey. Now the stadium has only 23,785 seats, and their matches of the European Tournaments Galatasaray holds in the Ataturk Olympic Stadium. However, Ali Sami Yen Stadium remains a place, where Galatasaray won Barcelona, Real, Manchester United, Fenerbahce, and Besiktas.

The unofficial name of Galatasaray players is Lions, and their fans name the stadium Cennehem (hell). Nowadays, Galatasaray meet their opponents with the motto Cennehem Hosgeldiniz, meaning Welcome To The Hell.

The Ali Sami Yen Stadium is in Sisli district, near the street, which leads to the Bosporus bridge. In 2007 Galatasaray started the construction of their new football stadium called Turk Telekom Arena. Besides the stadium with 58,000 seats, there will be built a covered sports hall with 15,000 seats, subway station, shopping center, and parking area.

Camiseta oficial Islandia 2018 Comprar Camiseta oficial Islandia 2018 precio más barato y envío rápido y de los mejores equipos y selecciones del mundo de Hombre,Mujer y Niños.

A Short Biography of Soccer Player – Sylvain Wiltord

His complete name is Sylvain Claude Wiltord. He was born on 10 May 1974 in Neuilly-sur-Marne, France. With the national side of French, Wiltord has been successful in Euro 2000 and achieved the final of FIFA World Cup in 2006. Wiltord’s playing position in the field is as Striker / Winger.

Wiltord have many experiences palying football with some clubs. In club level he played for Rennes in 1992-1997, Girondins Bordeaux in 1997-2000, Arsenal in 2000-2004, Lyon in 2004-2007, Rennes in 2007-2009, Marseille in 2009, and Metz 2010 till now.

On 10 February 1999, he made his first appearance for France winning 2-0 against England. On behalf of his national team, he has been capped 92 times, making 26 goals.

Wiltord stay put in the national team for the 2002 World Cup. He participated at Euro 2004 as well, playing 7 matches in the qualifying campaign with a great return of 6 goals. Lately, he was member of France team of Raymond Domenech that participated in the 2006 World Cup final in opposition to Italy.

During his career Wiltord achieved many honors as soccer player. And the honors include With Girondins de Bordeaux (French Ligue 1: 1998-99), With Arsenal, (FA Premier League: 2001/02, 2003/04, FA Cup: 2002, 2003, FA Community Shield: 2002), With Olympique Lyonnais (French Ligue 1: 2004/05, 2005/06, 2006/07). With his national team the honors include UEFA Euro 2000, FIFA Confederations Cup: 2001, 2003 (as Winner), and FIFA World Cup: 2006 (as Runner-up). And as individual honors are French Ligue 1 Top Scorer: 1998-99 (22 goals with Bordeaux), French Footballer of the Year: 1999, and FIFA Confederations Cup Top Scorer: 2001.

Portugal 2018 Camiseta de la 1ª equipación Mujer Comprar Portugal 2018 Camiseta de la 1ª equipación Mujer baratas precio más barato y envío rápido y de los mejores equipos y selecciones del mundo de Hombre,Mujer y Niños.

Instant reactions after Liverpool's win v. Everton | Premier League | NBC Sports



Hear from Robbie Earle and Kyle Martino as well as Marco Silva and Mason Holgate after Liverpool’s dominant 5-2 victory over Everton. #NBCSports #PremierLeague #Liverpool
» Subscribe to NBC Sports:
» Watch Live Sports on NBCSports.com:
» Get more Premier League news on NBC Sports:

Want more Premier League? Check out NBC Sports Gold:

NBC Sports Group serves sports fans 24/7 with premier live events, insightful studio shows, and compelling original programming. NBC Sports is an established leader in the sports media landscape with an unparalleled collection of sports properties that include the Olympics, NFL, Premier League, NHL, NASCAR, PGA TOUR, the Kentucky Derby, Tour de France, French Open, IndyCar and many more.
Subscribe to our channel for the latest sporting news and highlights!

The Premier League across NBC Sports Group launched in 2013 with their biggest and broadest programming commitment to-date in the United States. With live multi-platform coverage of all 380 games, analysis from best-in-class talent and extensive surrounding coverage all week long, NBC Sports Group has become the ultimate destination for new and existing Premier League fans.

The Premier League maintains strong and consistent reach across NBC, NBCSN, CNBC, and NBC Sports Group’s live streaming products, led by the biggest stars and most prestigious teams in the world.

Visit NBC Sports:
Find NBC Sports on Facebook:
Follow NBC Sports on Twitter:
Follow NBC Sports on Instagram:

Instant reactions after Liverpool’s win v. Everton | Premier League | NBC Sports

source Troba Fútbol Equipaciones y camisetas. Entrega y devolución gratuitas. comprar camiseta atletico de madrid

Important Structural And Functional Features Of Soccer Cleats

Scoring goals can be fun, but there is great importance in choosing the right footwear to increase all important elements of game like stability, dribbling, traction, and accuracy that increase overall performance. A quality soccer shoe is one that allows complete freedom of movement and function. It ought to offer total support and comfort and as a player looking for the best you must be able to understand what cleats are all about and what reactions will mean to your performance when wearing the cleats.

When there is excessive motion of the feet during play, there is risk of blisters and tendonitis. This is, however an issue that most manufacturers have eliminated by making various improvements to the cleat environment. Different features are integrated to offer comfort and control for all kinds of soccer players.

The upper

It acts as protective foot covering and the material used is what will determine the ball feel you have as well as control especially when dribbling down the field. The cleat upper plays a significant role in side to side stability of your feet. This part of the shoe should be leather or synthetic with each coming with its pros and cons. The op portion of cleat upper is the strike zone and it is what contacts the ball. It could feature rubber or silicone areas that help in ball control. In some cleats, the outer areas are padded so they can dampen the impact of hard passes to the feet.

The heel counter

This is the clear structure that cradles the heel back. A good heel counter should not only be bonded strongly to the upper and outsole plate, but should also not bend even after long periods of vigorous use. A bended counter will not be as functional and when buying your cleats you should therefore ensure that it is bound to remain rigid from outside and have good padding too on the inside to keep blistering at bay. It is a part that should offer support and cushioning so you remain stable even when making quick turns, stops and starts. The main function of the heel counter is to absorb shock during running and releasing energy when pulling from turf to propel you. The heel counters can be internal or external with internal heels being more durable but not as protective especially when kicked.

The internal last

It is the footbed construction which has an important role in performance. It is what you will find under arch support or sock liner of your boots. A good quality footbed will offer you support for the arch and foot type too. The construction delivers the optimal blend of flexibility and stability. A footbed that fails to offer adequate support will only increase the risk of problems like plantar fasciitis. You may need to replace it with an insole that is more supportive. The insole offers support, absorbs shod and also holds the foot securely, but only the right materials will be able to offer you this.

Camiseta Dinamarca 1ª Equipación 2018 Camiseta Dinamarca 1ª Equipación 2018.Comprar Camisetas de futbol baratas precio más barato y envío rápido y de los mejores equipos y selecciones del mundo de Hombre,Mujer y Niños.

Top 3 Esports International Tournament: WCG, ESWC and WEG

With the development of Esports, investors try to share this big cake and players pay much attention to raise their skills and reputations. In this way, large number of professional competitions have sprout out. Among all these, the most famous are WCG, ESWC and WEG. To be the champion of any of these tournaments have become a dream to all players. But what are WCG, ESWC and WEG?

First, WCG is an abbreviation of World Cyber Games, which has been canceled since 2014. This competition hosted by Internation Cyber Marketing, ICM, and sponsored by Samsung and Microsoft from 2006. The official song for WCG is Beyond the Game, which is also the name of a official slogan and a documentary of WCG.

WCG created in 2000 and hosted in 2001 for the first time. Under the impact of Olympic Games, WCG also built a players village and changed the host city every year just like Olympic Games. It is the biggest electronic competition held annually and attracted million audiences. Top players gathered together, competed and communicated with each other. Preliminaries conducted independently in every countries or regions. All selected excellent competitors attended this big party finally.

Second, ESWC is a short form of Electronic Sport World Cup. It was created by Mattieu Dallon in 2003, who was a CEO of the companies Ligarena SA and subsequently Games- Services until 2009. The first two events were held at Futuroscope in France. The unique and innovative showcasing of gaming matches, played out on stage in front of a live audience, with live commentated broadcasts in several languages, quickly made the ESWC a pioneering competition and a leader in Esports communities.

2009 is a turning point to ESWC’s development. Due to the worldwide economic crisis and the fragility of the Esports economic models, which were almost entirely based on private sponsoring, ESWC have confronted a big dilemma this year. In 2010, ESWC was taken over by Jean- Marie Coutant, with a relaunch at Disneyland Paris. In 2011, ESWC was co-produced by Oxent, then from 2012 on by Oxent alone, following the acquisition of all the rights to the event.

Third, WEG, World E-sports Games, is another top-rank international Esports competition organized by Korea after WCG. It was founded in 2004 by Paul Chong with its headquarter in Seoul. The first three games were conducted in South Korea in 2005. A year later, the event was held in Hangzhou where its name was changed into the World e-Sports Games Masters. In 2007, WEG again returned to seoul, hosting the World e-Sports Games e-Stars, but moved back to China for the 2008 season of what is now the World- eSports Masters. Since then, it has been held every year and OnGameNet is the current rights holder to the World e-Sports Masters franchise.

The three international competitions witnessed the developments and changes of Esports. With their existences, players have a broad platform to broad their horizons and achieve higher goals!

List of the Most Famous Soccer Stadiums in the World

Unquestionably and undoubtedly the most popular sport in the world is soccer. Soccer is a sport that is viewed by literally billions of people every year and those people continue to tune in every year to see more and more of the world’s greatest sport. Fans usually participate in watching soccer from inside the stadiums, some of which are truly incredible works of architecture, some of which many have even been built using Texas coatings and Texas scaffolding. Amongst the thousands of stadiums in the world there are a few that specifically stick out as being amazing places of history and tradition where fans have gathered for years upon years.

One of the most famous stadiums in the world right now is Wembley Stadium in London, England. Wembley is famous because it is the official home of the England national team, known by their nickname the Three Lions. The current Wembley, however, is not the original and most famous one. The original Wembley Stadium was incredibly iconic, known around the world as the home of football, with its beautiful twin white towers on both sides of the entrance. But, the old one had to be torn down in the year 2000 due to the fact that it was very old, having been built in 1923 and it was decided that it would cost less to build a new one than to upkeep the old one. Although the fans have not necessarily warmed up to the new version yet, certainly as memories are made by the team in the stadium it will be received better.

Another of the most famous stadiums in the world is the Nou Camp in Barcelona. To fully understand the importance of this stadium, people must realize the history and importance of Barcelona football club. Some people in the Catalan region in which Barcelona sits are known to support Barcelona because they support Catalan independence and a new country away from Spain. Needless to say, when Barcelona FC plays at home there is a crazy and frenzied atmosphere. The other part of the importance of the stadium is that it is currently the largest stadium on the European continent, seating a maximum of 98,787 people. The stadium has also hosted a few different European Cup finals, further cementing its legacy as one of the world’s greatest stadiums.

Lastly, there is a stadium in South America that is one of the most famous in the world. The stadium is called the Maracana and is located in Brazil, and is the official home of the Brazilian national team. Having won five World Cups, more than any other country in the world, the stadium has certainly seen its fair share of excitement of the years. It seats 90,000 and is the biggest stadium on the South American continent. Furthermore, when the World Cup is hosted in Brazil in 2014 the arena will serve as the host for the final, typically meaning that it is the most important stadium in its country.

Architecture is important to the structural integrity of buildings and there are numerous methods that can be used to make sure that buildings stay intact for many years.

Madrid: One of the Sexiest Cities

On the night that I arrived to Madrid, I had slowly settled in to my friend David's city center flat. I slipped into bed and cracked open the window of the guest room and a cool Spanish breeze welcomed itself in. As I breathed in the chill midnight air and released a long sigh, I thought to myself, "This place is truly wonderful."

The three months that I had spent in Spain I was able to visit a competent of cities; Madrid, Barcelona, ​​San Sebastian, Bilbao, Toledo, Alcala de Henares, Córdoba, Aranjuez, Móstoles, and Patones (for climbing). Of these cities, I've spent the major of the time in Madrid, and after the trip came to an end, I had come to the conclusion that Madrid is a seriously sexy city.

As discretion, I should add that I am in no way claiming that Madrid is "the" sexiest city in the world (although I'll probably have a few Madrileños who will tell me otherwise). I am simply stating that Madrid is one of the sexiest cities. I also know that I was not the first to visit the cities of Spain and certainly was not the first to explore the subcultures of the country, but Madrid's modern yet historical characteristics were nothing short of charming.

Of all the things I have considered, the following things on the list were the most significant:

Cost of Food:

Food is pretty cheap in Madrid, and while cheap is not often synonymous with sexy, your ability to enjoy luxuries (in some cases even like eating out,) is more probable, especially when your dollar is able to go a little further. In restaurants like "El Tigre", you order a drink and get a free platter of tapas. Granted they're not mind-blowing, you can still have a great time socializing with friends without busting your budget.

Curfew:

When I had to take an early flight to Belgium, I had to take a cab at 4am in order to get to the bus stop in the center of Madrid. I was afraid, very afraid, but also very determined.

Being the smart girl I was, I decided that dressing like I was homeless would be the most effective in deterring criminal. After all, criminals do not mess with other criminals.

As soon as I arrived to my bus stop though, I was both amazed and relieved to see tons of people sprawled all over the streets. I'm not talking 20-something partiers or ravers, mind you. The people have the mindset of work-to-live, not the live-to-work mindset that most North American's are familiar with. That mean two-hour lunch breaks as opposed to our one-hour (or even even half-hour) lunch breaks. Thankfully for me, that also meant that at 3am, all sorts of people of all ages were still out on the street. There was no stigma that only partiers or ravers were out at that hour, people were out simply because they want more time to spend with their friends. How they're still able to go to work in the morning? Do not ask me …

Fashion:

In Madrid, fashion is not reserved for the runway. I'm sorry Vancouver, but you're not winning any rewards here. From what I've observed, people dressed better in Madrid, period. The choice of clothing that was worn on a daily basis, even on a grocery store trip, would be me, trying. I'm not sure if that's knocking Vancouver's style or just my own personal ability to dress myself, but I digress. Does it help that Zara was born in Spain? Probably not.

Patios:

When I'm with friends in Vancouver, hanging out is going for a hike or heading to the beach to soak up the sun. We are after all, located in a spectacular coastal location, surrounded by stunning and chiefly pristine nature … but in Madrid, a city far from nature or the coast, hanging out more often than not intent grabbing drinks at a Patio, or " Terraza "as the locals called it. (That's pronounced Terra (tha), by the way.)

In this Spanish city, chances are there will be a terraza not far from your doorstep, and it will be quite good. It was also here that I learned the art of Patio-hopping. You see, as a North American, when I go to a restaurant to eat, I will eat, and then I will pay and leave. (We do not like to be the inconsiderate jerks that occupy an otherwise empty table.) But when you're in Madrid, you eat, and then you talk with your friends for an hour, and then you order more drinks. When you finally pay and leave, you head to another terraza and get more drinks. I will not lie, it seemed like overkill to me, but that my dear friends, is patio-hopping … (and I also solemnly swear that I am not an alcoholic).

Patio-hopping never-the-less is an art, or in my case, an art of being patient … or the art of not asking why we have to stay for so goddamn long.

Architecture:

Modern yet classical; with a country this old, it's hardly a surprise that a city as metropolitan as Madrid could stay fixed to it's roots. From the Museo Nacional Del Prado (which boasts some of the world's finest arts) to Parque del Retiro (which once belonged to the Spanish monarchy), the architecture somehow still remained relevant to this day. When you feel uninspired, you can also head to the Palacio de Cristal to get some creative stimulus.

Culture:

At the end of the day, I could only chalk it up to culture. The overwhelming feeling of unity, when Real Madrid played against Atlético Madrid in the Plaza de Cibeles during the World Cup of 2014, was enough to explain why the city was so sexy, and it all boils down to passion. Madrileños feel a strong passion towards their city, the same way that Vancouverites feel a strong passion towards the outdoors, and it's a thing I quickly learned to respect. I love my own city of Vancouver to bits, and as an overall outdoorsy girl, I would have it no other way. But after living in a city like Madrid where the allure of the city will reel you in one way or another, I can honestly say that this city will no less place as one of the sexiest cities in my books.

FIFA World Cup – Interesting Facts!

1930

Did you know- Uruguayan squad, the host country’s team,claimed the first-ever Men’s World Cup title over Argentina, 4-2.

1934

Did you know- At the II World Cup, Italy, host country, became the first European squad to win a global tournament. The subsequent tournaments were held as follows: 1938 in Paris (France, Europe), 1950 in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, Latin America), 1958 in Stockholm (Sweden, Europe), 1962 in Santiago (Chile, Latin America), 1966 in London (England, Europe), 1970 in Mexico City (Mexico, Latin America), 1974 in Munich (West Germany, Europe), 1978 in Buenos Aires (Argentina, South America), 1982 in Barcelona (Spain, Europe), 1986 in Mexico City (Mexico, North America), 1990 in Rome (Italy, Europe), 1994 in Los Angeles (USA, North America), 1998 in Paris (France, Europe), 2002 in Seoul and Tokyo (South Korea & Japan, Asia), 2006 in Munich (Germany, Europe).

1950

Did you know- Bolivia competed in 1950 but not again until 1994 in the United States of America.

1974

Did you know- For the first time, West Germany hosted the global tournament in July 1974. Historically Germany had been competitive in soccer. Under the leadership Franz («Kaiser») Beckenbauer, the host country-which never finished below sixth place since 1954– won the X FIFA World Tournament. Outside of the Berlin Olympics (1936) and the Munich Games (1972), this event was the largest ever held in Germany.

1978

Did you know- Tunisia (Africa) placed ninth at the 1978 FIFA World Championship in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

1982

Did you know- At the 1982 FIFA World Tournament in Madrid (Spain), New Zealand, a rugby-loving nation, had the worst result for its region -Oceania- in World Cup’s history. Unfortunately NZ placed 23rd. For the country, it was its first appearance in the universal event.

1990

Did you know- At the 1990 FIFA World Championship in Europe,Cameroon’s football player Roger Milla, one of sub-Saharan Africa’s most respected footballers in the 20th century, helped his team towards eighth position, the best result ever for an African country in soccer history.

2002- 2010

Did you know- Brazil -one of the world’s biggest democracies– has historically been competitive in football since the 1950s.The soccer players from Brazil have conquered five out of eighteen tournaments: Sweden’58, Chile’62, Mexico’70, USA’94 and South Korea & Japan’02. In 1950 and 1998, Brazil was runner-up. By 2010, the Latin American nation is attempting to become the first country to win six World Cup titles in football history.

2010

Did you know- The 19th global tournament will be held in South Africa, one of the youngest members of the FIFA. It’ll be the largest event ever held in Africa. There’s only event that rivals the FIFA World Cup: the Summer Olympics.

The History of World Cup Football

The FIFA World Cup (often called the Football World Cup or simply the World Cup) is the most important competition in international football (soccer), and the world’s most representative team sport event. Organised by Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport’s governing body, the World Cup is contested by the men’s national football teams of FIFA member nations. The championship has been awarded every four years since the first tournament in 1930 (except in 1942 and 1946 due to World War II), however it is more of an ongoing event as the qualifying rounds of the competition take place over the three years preceding the final rounds.The final tournament phase (often called the «Finals») involves 32 national teams competing over a four-week period in a previously nominated host nation, with these games making it the most widely-viewed sporting event in the world.[1] In the 17 tournaments held, only seven nations have ever won the World Cup Finals. Brazil are the current holders, as well as the most successful World Cup team, having won the tournament five times, while Germany and Italy follow with three titles each. The next football World Cup Finals will be held in Germany.

The first international football match was played in 1872 between England and Scotland, although at this stage the sport was rarely played outside Great Britain. As football began to increase in popularity, it was held as a demonstration sport (with no medals awarded) at the 1900, 1904 and 1906 Summer Olympics before football became an official competition at the 1908 Summer Olympics. Organised by England’s Football Association, the event was for amateur players only and was regarded suspiciously as a show rather than a competition. The England national amateur football team won the event in both 1908 and 1912.

With the Olympic event continuing to be contested only between amateur teams, Sir Thomas Lipton organised the Sir Thomas Lipton Trophy tournament in Turin in 1909. The competition is often described as The First World Cup,and featured the most prestigious professional club sides from Italy, Germany and Switzerland. The first tournament was won by West Auckland, an amateur side from north-east England that was invited after the Football Association refused to be associated with the competition. West Auckland returned in 1911 to successfully defend their title, and were given the trophy to keep forever, as per the rules of the competition.

In 1914, FIFA agreed to recognise the Olympic tournament as a «world football championship for amateurs», and took responsibility for organising the event. This led the way for the world’s first intercontinental football competition, at the 1924 Summer Olympics. Uruguay won the tournament,before winning the gold medal again in 1928, with another South American team, Argentina, taking silver. In 1928 FIFA made the decision to stage their own international tournament. With Uruguay now two-time official football world champions and due to celebrate their centenary of independence in 1930, FIFA named Uruguay as the host country.

The 1932 Summer Olympics, held in Los Angeles, did not plan to include football as part of the programme due to the low popularity of football in the United States. FIFA and the IOC also disagreed over the status of amateur players, and so football was dropped from the Games.FIFA president Jules Rimet thus set about organising the inaugural World Cup tournament to be held in Uruguay in 1930. The national associations of selected nations were invited to send a team, but the choice of Uruguay as a venue for the competition meant a long and costly trip across the Atlantic Ocean for European sides. Indeed, no European country pledged to send a team until two months before the start of the competition.Rimet eventually persuaded teams from Belgium, France, Romania, and Yugoslavia to make the trip. In total 13 nations took part — seven from South America, four from Europe and two from North America.

A spin-off tournament, the FIFA Women’s World Cup, was first held in 1991. It is similar to the men’s tournament in format, but so far has not generated the same level of interest.

Why France Football Team Lost In The World Cup 2010 – Lessons Learnt From Sport Psychology Points

Before the South Africa World Cup, nobody could ever imagine that the runner up of World Cup2006 would fall down that badly with two defeats, one draw, foul-mouthed squabbles in the dressing room and a team strike. So what happened with the French players psychologically?

The start of all things came with the bad words by Nicholas Anelka to his coach Domenech during half time game with Mexico. Put aside his inappropriate saying, the worse thing was that somebody leaked that information to the media. In sport psychology terms, a norm in a team was broken. Norms are the standards for behavior that is expected of team members. Norms are not formally adopted by the team but result from a gradual change in behavior until a consensus is reached. Norms are different from rules in the fact that rules are formal for everyone and there are normally some punishments for breaking the rule. Because norms are unobtrusive, they are sometimes taken for granted and only become important when violated. In the case of France team, for some reasons, the norm of keeping team issues inside the locker room was violated. And the result was really destructive.

Worst of all, the team represented by Patrick Evra boycotted training and some players showed the intention of avoiding playing the last game. In this case the whole team was united under the same cause: to protest against the decision to send Anelka back from the French Football Federation. In sport psychology terms, the team displayed very high cohesion. Team cohesion is defined as: «the resistance of the group to disruptive forces«. When a team is highly cohesive like French team, it would be able to tolerate a great deal of negativity arising from the occurrence of unfavorable events, such as losing games, or receiving criticism in the media… Team cohesion is also divided into 2 type: task cohesion (regarding team goals and performance) and social cohesion (regarding relationship outside the task). In France team, the players showed very high social cohesion that led to the boycott and protest to support their teammate.

So what could have been fixed in that case? Obviously, there are many issues that had to be solved (from behavior of players to coach, setting up norms for communication with each other and to the media…). However, there is one main issue I believe should have been tackled. By interacting with players in an informal approach, a sport psychologist could help players restore and re-affirm their team goal. Obviously, they came to World Cup to represent their country and to make French people proud. As a national team, they carried the image of the whole nation and should behave accordingly, especially in front of foreign media. By reacting aggressively to coaches, they were successful in showing their team cohesion, yet failed to show their responsibilities for their nation and their fans. By re-aligning the team value and team goal to the players, a sport psychologist could help players redefine their priority and their purpose. This could potentially have led to different behaviors and performance by French players.

Although France team issues were rather extreme, it gives a very clear picture of many sport psychology issues that should have been addressed before and during the tournament. By being aware of norms and cohesion level in your team, you can prevent and address problems as well as improve team performance.