Paper Recycling – History and Processing

Paper is an example of a valuable material that can be recycled. Its wood fibers are reused five to seven times before they become too short and brittle. Possible products are paper and corrugated cardboard, egg cartons, fruit trays, ceiling and wall insulation and many others.

However, paper has not always been made from wood pulp. The Chinese government official and scholar Ts'ai Lun is said to be the first who developed paper from bamboo fibers, mulberry bark, linen and china grass in the year 105 AD

History

Newer research proves that paper was already produced 200 years earlier. Beside the already mentioned non-wood papermaking fibers, hemp, rags and fishing nets were used as source of material for the first recycled paper.

Paper has its name from the papyrus plant. In Ancient Egypt about 4,000 years ago, its leaves were pounded flat and used to write on.

The secret of paper production was protected for many years. The Japanese got to know it only in the year 610 AD The art of making paper spread slowly all over the world; it came to the Arab world by the eighth century and via the Middle East to Spain. In Europe, the first paper was produced in the 12th century (1144 in Xativa near Valencia).

Until Gutenberg's Bible (1456) the manuscripts consisted of parchment – the skin of a sheep or goat prepared for writing – or of vellum (skin of a calf). Most of the time there was a shortage of linen – the main source of material for paper.

In 1719, the French scientist Rene de Reaumur observed wasps chewing slivers of wood and building their nest from the fiber paste. He had the idea that paper could be made of wood fibers. He wrote it down, but never tested it himself. Still until the 19th century almost exclusively old cloth rags were used for paper production.

The chemical process of breaking down wood was invented in 1829 and the German Friedrich Keller found a method of grinding wood efficiently in 1843. This was the starting point of the success story of making paper from wood pulp and paper recycling.

The process of converting waste paper into a usable product

Waste paper is pre-sorted and collected by the consumer. He takes it to a local recycling center or recycling bin.

The collected papers are brought to a plant where they are sorted and pressed to bales. Lighter papers can be separated from heavier papers and contaminants by a stream of air. The bales are stored in warehouses until they are needed.

In a repulping process, the waste paper is chopped and broken down into fibers and mixed with water creating the pulp.

This pulp must be cleaned from contaminants in a deinking process, which can combine washing, separating, sieving and rotating the fibers. The excess materials, mainly old ink and weak fibers, are skimmed off or dropped through centrifugal force into the sludge. It is then landfilled, burned or used otherwise.

Now the fiber is ready to be made into a new paper product. If white paper is needed a bleaching process follows using hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide or oxygen. The clean pulp is either mixed with virgin fibers or used alone.

Camiseta de la 2ª equipación Newcastle United 2018/19 Camiseta de la 2ª equipación Newcastle United 2018/19

Advantages & Disadvantages of Traveling by Train in Spain

The trains of Spain are efficient, fast and relatively cheap. But in order to commute by train, you need to make an itinerary, not taking everything for granted.

There are a number of routes that are not very well served and the coverage is also not efficient at many places. You cannot expect everything to be cheap and quick always while decided to travel by train. Planning involves looking and going through the entire timetables and different routes of train in Spain. Different websites and portals can cater to your needs.

There is no doubt that a lot of times traveling by train will be cheaper in Spain as compared to the long distance travel in any other country. In fact, charges of train travel in Spain are nearly half the price of that in Germany or France. At times, train travels in Spain can also be extremely luxurious, especially if you are going for La Robla train tour. Luxury packages from Bilbao to Leon are also available.

Train travel in Spain also takes very little time, particularly at the Madrid-Barcelona AVE and Madrid- Seville Road. Inter rail passes and Eurail also makes travel cheaper in Spain. There are large numbers of discounts that are offered by these trains and the facilities they offer are also excellent but while choosing to take it you need to be very wise.

The ticket booking facility is also easier than that of booking the bus. There is only one main company that caters to different services. You do not have to keep on looking for services. Trains are also facilitated by lavoratory facilities unlike that of buses.

You can easier work by taking help of an interactive map that contains all the train routes in Spain, especially that of rail Europe. Real euro offers cheap rail passes in whole continent. Real euro offers maps for most of the European train routes.

Traveling by train also has some disadvantages in Spain. At times these tickets are not so cheap and travel is also not quick always. Sometimes you also need to pay extra. A lot of times you don’t also get direct routes and you end up wasting a lot of time. At times it also becomes difficult for you to make sure that the service of which train should be used. Although there are varieties of services, but the scenario sometimes gets very confusing. The situation is complicated towards the north and eastern parts of Spain. Price comparison and a good study of all routes can make train travel suitable for you.

CAMISETA ADIDAS JUVENTUS TERCERA EQUIPACIÓN 2018-2019 CAMISETA ADIDAS JUVENTUS TERCERA EQUIPACIÓN 2018-2019

Instant reactions after Liverpool's win v. Everton | Premier League | NBC Sports



Hear from Robbie Earle and Kyle Martino as well as Marco Silva and Mason Holgate after Liverpool’s dominant 5-2 victory over Everton. #NBCSports #PremierLeague #Liverpool
» Subscribe to NBC Sports:
» Watch Live Sports on NBCSports.com:
» Get more Premier League news on NBC Sports:

Want more Premier League? Check out NBC Sports Gold:

NBC Sports Group serves sports fans 24/7 with premier live events, insightful studio shows, and compelling original programming. NBC Sports is an established leader in the sports media landscape with an unparalleled collection of sports properties that include the Olympics, NFL, Premier League, NHL, NASCAR, PGA TOUR, the Kentucky Derby, Tour de France, French Open, IndyCar and many more.
Subscribe to our channel for the latest sporting news and highlights!

The Premier League across NBC Sports Group launched in 2013 with their biggest and broadest programming commitment to-date in the United States. With live multi-platform coverage of all 380 games, analysis from best-in-class talent and extensive surrounding coverage all week long, NBC Sports Group has become the ultimate destination for new and existing Premier League fans.

The Premier League maintains strong and consistent reach across NBC, NBCSN, CNBC, and NBC Sports Group’s live streaming products, led by the biggest stars and most prestigious teams in the world.

Visit NBC Sports:
Find NBC Sports on Facebook:
Follow NBC Sports on Twitter:
Follow NBC Sports on Instagram:

Instant reactions after Liverpool’s win v. Everton | Premier League | NBC Sports

source Troba Fútbol Equipaciones y camisetas. Entrega y devolución gratuitas. comprar camiseta atletico de madrid

Arsenal sack Unai Emery | Premier League | NBC Sports



Sky Sports News get reactions from Arsenal players as well as analysts and managers around the Premier League after the Gunners sacked Unai Emery in the midst of their struggles this season. #NBCSports #PremierLeague #Arsenal
» Subscribe to NBC Sports:
» Watch Live Sports on NBCSports.com:
» Get more Premier League news on NBC Sports:

Want more Premier League? Check out NBC Sports Gold:

NBC Sports Group serves sports fans 24/7 with premier live events, insightful studio shows, and compelling original programming. NBC Sports is an established leader in the sports media landscape with an unparalleled collection of sports properties that include the Olympics, NFL, Premier League, NHL, NASCAR, PGA TOUR, the Kentucky Derby, Tour de France, French Open, IndyCar and many more.
Subscribe to our channel for the latest sporting news and highlights!

The Premier League across NBC Sports Group launched in 2013 with their biggest and broadest programming commitment to-date in the United States. With live multi-platform coverage of all 380 games, analysis from best-in-class talent and extensive surrounding coverage all week long, NBC Sports Group has become the ultimate destination for new and existing Premier League fans.

The Premier League maintains strong and consistent reach across NBC, NBCSN, CNBC, and NBC Sports Group’s live streaming products, led by the biggest stars and most prestigious teams in the world.

Visit NBC Sports:
Find NBC Sports on Facebook:
Follow NBC Sports on Twitter:
Follow NBC Sports on Instagram:

Arsenal sack Unai Emery | Premier League | NBC Sports

source En la tienda online de Fútbol Factory tenemos todas las camisetas de tus equipos y selecciones favoritas en tallas para adulto y niño. equipacion real sociedad niño

Things To Consider When Choosing Your Workout Kit

For many people, working out is often about looking super presentable and attractive rather than being fit. However, your prime concern must be the comfort you are getting in the clothes while working out. Your workout apparel is what that decides the levels of your comfort and has a great effect on your exercise too.

What you wear defines who you are. Similarly, the range of clothes for exercise varies for different workouts. Your prime concern while selecting your workout apparel should be the fabric it is made of, its fit and the comfort.

Not able to decide the perfect apparel for workout? Have a look at these points that will help you pick the best thing to wear while exercising. In order to select the clothes that fit well for your workout, we’ve jotted down a few things to keep in mind.

1. Choosing fabric that provides wicking:

A synthetic fiber that wicks away the sweat from your body will not only keep your body temperature cool while working out, but will also make you feel light and easy, allowing the air to cross through. Polyester, Lycra and spandex would work well.

If you don’t sweat profusely, then wearing cotton apparel would be good for light workouts like stretching and walking as cotton is a soft fabric. However when it gets heavy with sweat, it will cling to your body, making you uneasy.

2. Getting the right fit:

Choose the clothes that don’t get in the way of your workout activity. For exercises which involve lots of leg usage like running, jogging and cycling, wear short or capris that aren’t baggy or loose fitted.

For stretches, yoga, weight lifting or other workouts that don’t involve rapid movements you can use a pair of yoga pants that have better elasticity.

3. Appropriate tops:

Sleeveless tops and t-shirts are a perfect thing to wear while working out. Go for tops that aren’t too loose and have the ability of supporting your body, not flaring away. Sleeveless tops would help keep body sweat-free. These can also be worn in winter season as mostly gyms are centrally heated.

4. Change of clothing according to weather:

The workout clothing changes from season to season. In hot summers you are most likely to be wearing sleeveless shirts with shorts or capris whereas in winters, sweatshirts or a think jacket over t-shirt would work fine. But one must keep in mind not to go for very warm clothing in winters as the body temperature itself goes up while exercising.

5. The right footwear:

Choosing the right shoe for workout is very important. If your feet aren’t comfortable, you can never perform the workout properly. Wear a shoe that perfectly fits your foot and ankle but isn’t too tight to not let the air pass through. Thin sole shoes are a good choice as they don’t let the shoe get heavy due to sweat.

Try to keep your clothing as light as you can in order to have a relaxed workout which does not make you feel irritated and disgusted due to sweat. After all, workout is supposed to give you an ever charming, relaxed look!

AC MILAN MAGLIA GARA AWAY 2018/19 AC MILAN MAGLIA GARA AWAY 2018/19

Soccer Cleats And How To Keep Foot Pain At Bay

Soccer just like any other sporting activity is vigorous and you need to have the right protection for your feet to remain in top shape for your game. To out your best foot forward during a match, you need to have the right gear for the sport and cleats are some of the most important items you need to select considering that most pressure remains on the feet as you engage in the play. Movement types on ground surfaces should all be considered when buying soccer cleats to ensure that performance is maintained at a high.

The truth is that feet have lots of joints and bones as well as ligaments and muscles and this means you can experience pain in lots of different areas too. Foot pain can be on the bottom or the upper part of the foot, heels and toes and others. Severe foot pain or injury can hinder mobility and some of them can actually develop into infections that cause long term disability or damage especially when left untreated. Wrong shoe fit is the biggest culprit when it comes to foot pain.

Types of injuries

The most common foot pain forms resulting from cleats include heel pain such as plantar fasciitis, ankle sprains, Achilles tendon injuries and blisters. Pivoting or having the feet caught when moving to a different direction leads to sprains whereas wearing soccer shoes that are not padded or not well-padded can lead to inflammation that is plantar fasciitis. Blisters also result from ill-fitting shoes that rub onto the foot raw skin.

Prevention tips

1. To keep foot pain caused by cleats at bay, always ensure that you get a proper fitting pair. Know the sizing prior to making the decision and remember to also put your foot type into the picture to get the best fit. For instance, wide feet will require a proper design from the regular soccer shoes.

2. Remember that the material used to make your soccer cleats can have an effect on the fit. Leather tends to stretch after a few years, whereas synthetic materials may not stretch as much. Avoid selecting shoes that make your feet feel cramped and instead think of comfort and stretching possibility.

3. Break-in your soccer cleats before you wear them to a competitive match. The last thing you want to do is try on the new pair in your next big game because it could be pretty uncomfortable.

4. Have any pre-existing conditions checked out and put in measures to avoid more injuries. You might need to treat the injuries before wearing your cleats and this can easily be done by keeping feet elevated, using ice packs on the areas and using a compression bandage to reduce any swelling. Blisters should remain covered to prevent irritations and infections.

5. Choose soccer cleats designed for comfort and control. Check out the padding, the heel, the cleats and even the uppers. The design and selection of materials should all be inclined in keeping your feet comfortable and protected.

CAMISETA ADIDAS JUVENTUS PORTERO 2018-2019 CAMISETA ADIDAS JUVENTUS PORTERO 2018-2019

Watford v. Brighton | PREMIER LEAGUE HIGHLIGHTS | 8/10/19 | NBC Sports



Check out the extended highlights between Watford and Brighton during Matchweek 1 of the 2019-2020 Premier League season. #NBCSports #PremierLeague #Brighton #Watford
» Subscribe to NBC Sports:
» Watch Live Sports on NBCSports.com:
» Get more Premier League news on NBC Sports:

NBC Sports Group serves sports fans 24/7 with premier live events, insightful studio shows, and compelling original programming. NBC Sports is an established leader in the sports media landscape with an unparalleled collection of sports properties that include the Olympics, NFL, Premier League, NHL, NASCAR, PGA TOUR, the Kentucky Derby, Tour de France, French Open, IndyCar and many more. Subscribe to our channel for the latest sporting news and highlights!

The Premier League across NBC Sports Group launched in 2013 with their biggest and broadest programming commitment to-date in the United States. With live multi-platform coverage of all 380 games, analysis from best-in-class talent and extensive surrounding coverage all week long, NBC Sports Group has become the ultimate destination for new and existing Premier League fans.

The Premier League maintains strong and consistent reach across NBC, NBCSN, CNBC, and NBC Sports Group’s live streaming products, led by the biggest stars and most prestigious teams in the world.

Visit NBC Sports:
Find NBC Sports on Facebook:
Follow NBC Sports on Twitter:
Follow NBC Sports on Instagram:

Watford v. Brighton | PREMIER LEAGUE HIGHLIGHTS | 8/10/19 | NBC Sports

source Camisetas de futbol , NBA y NFL baratas de la mejor calidad y de los mejores equipos y selecciones del mundo de Hombre,Mujer y Niños. camiseta senegal mundial 2018

Chicago "Blackhawks" – Another "Miracle" on the Ice

This team is based in Chicago, Illinois. It is one of the oldest teams of NHL. It was founded in the year 1926, while National Hockey League was founded in 1917. It belonged to the Western Conference, Central Division. Definitely, a team from such a huge city has millions of fans in the USA and in the rest of the world. All of them have great hopes for such team. Neverheless, the previous story of "Blackhawks" does not have too many Stanley Cup wins. The team won the main title 3 times. The last was dated in the season 1960-1961. Afterwards, Chicago did not know the pleasure of such victory.

Neverheless, everything has changed since the year 2008, when Joel Quenneville was appointed as a new head coach of the team. He in collaboration with general manager Stan Bowmen and other coaches led the Blackhawks to an amazing record for the modern hockey. The team won 3 more Cups in the course of some 6 years!

Such achievement was not a surprise in far past. Nonetheless, in comparison to previous times now we have many teams that are quite equal. Therefore, even one title in 10 years may be referred to a real success.

When talking about Chicago before the era of Bowmen and Quenneville, the results were awful. The last time the team reached the stage of play-offs was in the season 2001-2002. However, after changes in coaching stuff, the team lived through a real rebirth.

The coach factor did a great deal. The innovations of Quenneville brought splendid results. Thanks to excellent selective work of Bowmen, the team obtained young and perspective players, as well as experienced ones. The rookies Patrick Kane and Jonathan Toews turned into real world-class leaders, who lead their national teams. Neverheless, they became real stars in Chicago.

In strong collaboration of coaching stuff and players, the team from Illinois set a novice record of the modern hockey and it can be called a real "miracle on the ice". It can be compared with that amazing US Olympic hockey team that won golden medals in the year 1980. That was a real miracle, because a team of teenagers from different universities and colleges conquered the experienced monsters of world hockey.

Something similar was done by the Blackhawks. The first success of their "hat-trick" came in the season 2009-2010. Quenneville needed only 3 seasons to reach his first trophy. Afterwards, the team from the United Center (the main arena of the team) was taken seriously by the opponents. Notwithstanding, the opponents were not able to stop Hawks in seasons 2012-2013 and 2014-2015.

In respect of modern tendencies of North American hockey, such success is almost impossible. However, the guys from Chicago made it quite possible. How could it happen? Some would say that this is a long and hard labor of each member of the team. The others would say that this is pure luck. However, the case of "luck" would hardly work for three times in six years. Probably, both thoughts should be united.

It is fair enough that the Blackhawks reached such success. Many players of the team have already won multiple personal awards for the regular seasons and play-offs games. Stan Bowmen is probably the best general manager of the last decade. The genius of Joel Quenneville speaks for himself. Chicago regularly reaches the stage of play-offs, has already won 3 Stanley Cups and shows impressive hockey each season. It is not surprising that the he was included to the coach team for the upcoming Cup of Canada, which is the most prestigious hockey tournament of all times.

During the last season, the Blackhawks could not win the Cup. However, on the average, they win this trophy once per two years. Consequently, the new 2016-2017 season is probably another successful year for them. So, we may talk about new record of 4 wins in 8 years.

2010 FIFA World Cup – South Africa, to Be Or Not to Be?

I love football. Football is life. Football is the beautiful game. I am getting rushes of adrenalin to the head already just thinking about the 2010 FIFA World Cup.

In 2010 the entire pumped-up and emotive football world will descend in a riotous show of bliss upon majestic South Africa for the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Will South Africa be ready for them?

In 2006 FIFA chief Sepp Blatter made it very clear that there was to be no doubt about the 2010 FIFA World Cup being held in South Africa: «Plan A… Plan B… Plan C is that the 2010 World Cup will be staged in South Africa». The only contingency plan that would see South Africa not host the cup would be due to a natural catastrophe. In the same year, on behalf of Blatter in an address to the South African Parliment FIFA communications director Markus Seigler reinforced the notion that South Africa is doing just fine: «You are absolutely on schedule, you’re absolutely on track. You’re even more advanced than the Germans were four years ago…Any doubts are completely unfair. This country – and I know this country – is absolutely capable.» Seigler capped it off with acknowledging that the previous host, Germany, had also faced adversity and added: «At least South Africa’s economy is growing – Germany’s is not.»

In 2008 the rumour mill has not stopped churning out doubts about whether South Africa will host the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Word on the street is that the 2010 World Cup preparations have been plagued by a host of problems that could compromise vital deadlines. Stadium construction delays, striking workers, security fears, transport problems and the possibility of power outages are running rampant.

Port Elizabeth stadium is one of the main venues in the 2010 FIFA World Cup and is yet to be completed. Next year’s Confederations Cup, a precursor to the competition for the World Cup, was slated to take place in the stadium but has since been pulled out of the Cup.

In an interview in Die Welt newspaper published on Monday July 14th, 2008 Franz Beckenbauer confirmed the event would be held in South Africa: «We in the FIFA executive are doing everything to have the World Cup take place in South Africa, even if we have to shut an eye every now and then. But I am sure that the World Cup in South Africa will take place.»

However, Beckenbauer was out of the loop when it came to any knowledge about FIFA chief Sepp Blatter’s actively searching for countries that would be ale to host the championship in the case of a natural catastrophe. In an interview with Sky News Beckenbauer explained: «Honestly, it was a surprise for me. I myself sit in FIFA’s executive and even I don’t know who are Blatter’s candidates.»

Whether the public is getting a load of double-speak about the whole affair is debatable. But on the bright side, it has been announced that vuvuzelas will not be banned.

Vuvuzelas, sometimes referred to as ‘lepatatas’ are air horns approximately one metre in length made from plastic and commonly seen at football matches all over the world. The name is said to originate from the Zulu for «making noise» although this is hotly disputed. Others say the name originates from the fact it makes a «vuvu» sound when blown, or even comes from the township slang related to the word for «shower».

Kaizer Chiefs supporters’ spokesperson Saddam Maake who is credited with popularising the instrument was overjoyed to hear that the vuvuzela ban had been lifted: «When we got the message that vuvuzelas were going to be banned, we were disappointed. We knew it had become part of our culture and offered free entertainment during matches. I felt over the moon when I heard about the lifting of the ban.»

Critics of the instrument feel that the noise detracts from the game, but Maake explains that people need to be educated about how to use the vuvuzelas correctly: «They have to know that you cannot blow it during moments of silence and when they blow it during the game they should do it to make rhythmic music.»

The first FIFA World Cup was held in 1930 and has gained strength from year to year for every four years, halted only twice in1942 and 1946 by World War II.

In the eighteen FIFA tournaments that have been held seven nations have won the title. Brazil has the most World Cups team, having won the tournament five times. The current World Champions, Italy, follow with four titles, while Germany holds three. The other former champions are Uruguay (winners of the inaugural tournament) and Argentina with two titles each. England and France hold one title each.

The most recent World Cup Finals were held in Germany, where Italy was crowned the champion after beating France in the final.

We’re already half way there. Those two long years are going to creep up on us and we will be looking for cheap ticket deals and packages to South Africa sooner than we think with our hearts pumping like they were shocked by 10,000 volts in anticipation of the spectacular event that the 2010 FIFA World Cup is going to be. Bring on the joy.

What Happened In The UK In 1992?

Breaking 1992 down into the biggest political, sports and entertainment news; here’s what happened…

The queen had both an expensive and an embarrassing year; early on announcing that she would bow to public pressure and pay income tax (the first time a British monarch had done so for over 50 years) and, at the end of the year, having her Christmas speech leaked to and published in ‘The Sun’ ahead of the big day. It was also a bad year for Manchester after the IRA exploded two bombs in centre of the city; injuring 64 people and causing millions of pounds of damage.

Politically, the government, led by John Major, made themselves unpopular on two fronts, by firstly signing Britain up to the ‘Treaty on European Union’ (many saw this as a loss of Britain’s identity); then secondly announcing it’s plans to close a third of Britain’s deep coal mines, with the loss of 31,000 jobs.

In terms of sport, 1992 saw Barcelona hosting the Olympic Games; it being the first time in 20 years that every country had been present (with no boycotts or bans in places). Linford Christie was the star of the event by becoming the oldest ever Olympic 100m champion (at 32 years old!). The year also saw ‘The Football Association’ launch the new ‘Premier League’, no-one at the time quite realising the revolutionary effect that it would have on the game.

Entertainment wise, the quirky, fast paced breakfast TV programme ‘The Big Breakfast’ made its debut. There was plenty of chaos and disorder on the show; Chris Evans being the one to lead the fun, games and competitions. The BBC were far, far less successful with their attempt at entertaining the public with ‘Eldorado’. Focusing on a community of ex-pats living in a Spanish fishing village, it was slated for its wooden actors and uninspiring storylines (later to be axed after just one year).

The big movies of the year were ‘Wayne’s World’ and ‘Reservoir Dogs’. The first being about Wayne and Garth’s battling it out with a hot-shot TV producer to save their own low-budget TV show (and also win the heart of the lovely Cassandra!). The second being Quentin Tarantino’s story of a botched robbery and the hunting out of the ‘rat’ (was it Mr. White, Mr. Orange, Mr. Blonde, Mr. Pink, Mr. Brown or Mr. Blue?).

Compra online tu Camisetas de Futbol Barata a precios muy rebajados en futbolmania.com | Las mejores ofertas en camisetas oficiales | Devoluciones gratis.