Paper Recycling – History and Processing

Paper is an example of a valuable material that can be recycled. Its wood fibers are reused five to seven times before they become too short and brittle. Possible products are paper and corrugated cardboard, egg cartons, fruit trays, ceiling and wall insulation and many others.

However, paper has not always been made from wood pulp. The Chinese government official and scholar Ts'ai Lun is said to be the first who developed paper from bamboo fibers, mulberry bark, linen and china grass in the year 105 AD

History

Newer research proves that paper was already produced 200 years earlier. Beside the already mentioned non-wood papermaking fibers, hemp, rags and fishing nets were used as source of material for the first recycled paper.

Paper has its name from the papyrus plant. In Ancient Egypt about 4,000 years ago, its leaves were pounded flat and used to write on.

The secret of paper production was protected for many years. The Japanese got to know it only in the year 610 AD The art of making paper spread slowly all over the world; it came to the Arab world by the eighth century and via the Middle East to Spain. In Europe, the first paper was produced in the 12th century (1144 in Xativa near Valencia).

Until Gutenberg's Bible (1456) the manuscripts consisted of parchment – the skin of a sheep or goat prepared for writing – or of vellum (skin of a calf). Most of the time there was a shortage of linen – the main source of material for paper.

In 1719, the French scientist Rene de Reaumur observed wasps chewing slivers of wood and building their nest from the fiber paste. He had the idea that paper could be made of wood fibers. He wrote it down, but never tested it himself. Still until the 19th century almost exclusively old cloth rags were used for paper production.

The chemical process of breaking down wood was invented in 1829 and the German Friedrich Keller found a method of grinding wood efficiently in 1843. This was the starting point of the success story of making paper from wood pulp and paper recycling.

The process of converting waste paper into a usable product

Waste paper is pre-sorted and collected by the consumer. He takes it to a local recycling center or recycling bin.

The collected papers are brought to a plant where they are sorted and pressed to bales. Lighter papers can be separated from heavier papers and contaminants by a stream of air. The bales are stored in warehouses until they are needed.

In a repulping process, the waste paper is chopped and broken down into fibers and mixed with water creating the pulp.

This pulp must be cleaned from contaminants in a deinking process, which can combine washing, separating, sieving and rotating the fibers. The excess materials, mainly old ink and weak fibers, are skimmed off or dropped through centrifugal force into the sludge. It is then landfilled, burned or used otherwise.

Now the fiber is ready to be made into a new paper product. If white paper is needed a bleaching process follows using hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide or oxygen. The clean pulp is either mixed with virgin fibers or used alone.

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Dubai Holding and Liverpool FC

After weeks of speculation, Dubai Holding has reportedly secured a deal in principle to invest in Liverpool FC. According to reports the deal was agreed late on Friday evening for the Middle Eastern investors to buy into the club, but what is not sure is whether or not this will be a controlling interest.

Many parties have been touted as potential Liverpool FC investors from Steve Morgan, a Robert Kraft led L4 consortium, former Thai Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra and most recently George Gillett Jr. amongst others. Now it appears that Dubai Holding have been the favored choice all along and Liverpool’s chief executive Rick Parry has been holding talks with the company for two years now.

Dubai Holding, who have recently secured an £800m purchase of Madame Tussaud’s and the £675m buyout of Travelodge hotels, recognise Liverpool’s incredible world-wide appeal and will offer coach Rafael Benitez a sizeable transfer kitty. This should finally allow Liverpool the chance to compete with the likes of Chelsea, Real Madrid and Manchester United in attracting the very best players as well as afford the high transfer fees that come along with them.

More importantly the «New Anfield» project which has been left on the drawing board for the last year or so could finally see the light of day. A club like Manchester United reportedly makes £1m more than Liverpool in gate receipts every home game due to their stadium Old Trafford’s greater seating capacity.

Dubai Holding have a reputation for making shrewd, timely investments and if the deal has indeed gone through as suggested, Livepool fans world wide can look forward to a Merry Christmas and a very Happy New Year!

Current Dubai Holding Investments

DaimlerChrysler (2%)

Madame Tussaud (100%)

Carlton Tower London (100%)

Londes Hotel London (100%)

Essex House New York (100%)

Dubai Bank (70%)

Emirates Tower Hotel & Offices (75%)

Sunbelt rental apartments (21000 apartments)

Liverpool Football Club??

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Jurgen Klopp FULL Pre-Match Press Conference – Bournemouth v Liverpool – Premier League



Liverpool manager Jurgen Klopp holds a press conference ahead of the team’s Premier League game against Bournemouth.

Klopp sidestepped a question on Liverpool being top of the table at Christmas again, having been there before and not gone on to win the Premier League title.

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BENCH CAM | Norwich City 2-2 Arsenal | Premier League highlights



A special episode of Bench Cam as Freddie Ljungberg takes his seat in the dugout as interim head coach for the first time.

#arsenal #ljungberg #premierleague

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This is the Official YouTube channel for Arsenal Football Club. This channel will aim to showcase the personality of Arsenal Football Club and give fans more of an insight into what it’s like to be at this fantastic club. This channel will look behind the scenes and get closer to the likes of Mesut Ozil, Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang, Henrikh Mkhitaryan, Alexandre Lacazette, Bernd Leno, Granit Xhaka, Hector Bellerin, and more.

ABOUT ARSENAL FC

Arsenal Football Club were formed in 1886. They have amassed 13 League titles, 13 FA Cups and many other major trophies since then. Their greatest players include: Thierry Henry, Dennis Bergkamp, Tony Adams, Ian Wright, Robert Pires, Liam Brady, Patrick Vieira, Cliff Bastin and Charlie George.

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Premier League Weekend Roundup: Matchweek 13 | The Lowe Down | NBC Sports



Rebecca Lowe tackles the biggest talking points in the Premier League after Matchweek 13, from her reaction to Jose Mourinho’s return to the race for the title — and the sack. #NBCSports #PremierLeague #TheLoweDown #Matchweek13 #Tottenham
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Premier League Weekend Roundup: Matchweek 13 | The Lowe Down | NBC Sports

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Manchester United v. Brighton | PREMIER LEAGUE HIGHLIGHTS | 11/10/19 | NBC Sports



Manchester United returned to winning ways, putting three goals past Matt Ryan and Brighton to claim a 3-1 victory at Old Trafford. #NBCSports #PremierLeague #ManUnited #Brighton #MattRyan
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The Premier League across NBC Sports Group launched in 2013 with their biggest and broadest programming commitment to-date in the United States. With live multi-platform coverage of all 380 games, analysis from best-in-class talent and extensive surrounding coverage all week long, NBC Sports Group has become the ultimate destination for new and existing Premier League fans.

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Manchester United v. Brighton | PREMIER LEAGUE HIGHLIGHTS | 11/10/19 | NBC Sports

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Five Reasons to Select Proper Athletic Clothing

Selecting the right kind of clothes is always important. You cannot go for a formal meeting in your pajamas nor can you go to bed in your tuxedo. Thus, it is important to select the right clothing for each and every occasion. Be it meeting, wedding, date, gym, sports and so on. Yes! You heard it right. It is important to wear right clothes for a gym session and while playing any sports as well. Wondering why it is important?

Here are five reasons which will make you realize the importance of athletic clothing:

  • Wearing the proper athletic clothing will boost your confidence – The clothing you wear will make a huge difference in your performance. This has been proven by few studies done all around the world. Studies have shown that wearing the right clothes has a positive impact and you tend to perform better. Thus, when you have the right equipment and you are wearing the right clothes, the confidence interprets into better performance.
  • Right sports apparel enhances performance – Selecting the right apparel is necessary for any sport you play. For instance, a pair of running shoes is necessary for soccer. But they are not recommended for few other sports as they lack flexibility, traction and lateral stability which are required for other sports. Also, clothing that removes perspiration from the body must be selected.
  • Correct workout equipment avoids injury and adds protection – One of the main reasons of sports related injuries is the use of improperly fitted sports equipment. For example use of shoes that do not fit properly might cause craps, blisters or even slippery. Also some of them might require use of orthotic inserts to avoid leg injuries. It is always advisable to change your shoes after using them for 400 to 500 miles.
  • The movement of the body improves when you wear the right fitted clothes – It is important that the clothes you wear provide you freedom of movement without any obstructions. Your shirt or your shorts should not be too tight that restricts your movement nor should they be too loose that they slip every time you twist, turn or jump.
  • Some compression clothing also helps you to recover from any injury after workout – These compression clothing stimulates blood circulation. This graduated blood flow through muscles helps to remove the lactic acid which is produced during workout. Consequently, the recovery of the body increases and reduces the chances of having sore and stiff muscles. Wearing of compression clothing gives the same effect as massaging.

So get yourself the right athletic apparel before you go for workout or go out play your favorite sports.

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Football Boots Buying Guide

With time, football boots are becoming an essential accessory for football players. These shoes come in thousands of styles, as there are many manufacturers out there. So, which shoes should you go for? Here are some pieces of advice from experts to make it easier for you.

Comfort

Do your feet hurt in your shoes? If you can not walk comfortably in your shoes, how can you play with them on? In other words, comfort is the first thing that should be considered when buying a good pair.

Price level

You have to set a price limit. In the store, you may be tempted by the thought that you can go for that awesome pair if you spend just a few more bucks. But believe me, you should not cross the price barrier you set. Most of the time, good football boots come with a price tag of not more than $ 200. This can be a good price limit for you.

Size Matters

No matter how cheap it may be, do not grab a pair that is too big for you. While the price may be tempting, do not make this mistake. Playing in a pair that does not fit you is a sure fire way to lose a game.

Do not Try on Big Names

Big names do not needlessly make the best shoes. Small or less popular manufacturers can also make quite good shoes. In other words, there is no harm in trying on shoes made by less popular brands. As long as they make shoes that meet your requirements, you can buy from them.

Shop Around

Shopping around may ensure you get the best pair at the best price. In the market, you should visit several stores to get quotes and check out different pairs. This is the only most reliable and conventional way of buying the shoes you want.

Avoid Marketing Ploys

Do you want the same brand of shoes that Cristiano Ronaldo put on? If you do, stop. Are you sure the same brand will be best for you too? There is a chance that the pair made by that manufacture will not fit you. So, this is not the right way to buy a pair of boots, especially for playing football.

Buying Online

While online stores may be cheaper than physical stores, buying shoes from an online store does not seem like a good idea unless the store is trustworthy. The size may be wrong or the appearance may be different from the pictures you saw on their website. Moreover, you can not try on the shoes you saw on a website. How can you ensure that the boots will be comfortable? Therefore, it's a good idea that you go to a local store and try on a few good pairs.

There you go! Hopefully, if you re-read these tips before heading for your local store to try on different pairs of shoes, you will not buy the wrong pair. Usually, when people buy from online stores without thinking about the important tips given in this article, they end up with wrong pairs.

Why Germany Won The World Cup 2014

Now that the excitement of the World Cup 2014 has died down and we have had time to digest the memorable moments of the tournament, this is a good time to reflect and examine why Germany won the trophy.

There is a general consensus that the Germans were deserving winners.

They went to Brazil after passing through a period of failure and underachievement. They had failed to win the World Cup since 1990, finished dead last in their group in the 2000 European Championship and went to the semi-finals in their last 4 major international tournaments but failed to win a trophy.

In discussing the reason for their success in 2014 one could look back to the beginning of the century when Germany revolutionized the game at home by instituting far-reaching reforms with a focus on youth development, by introducing a new policy to include immigrant players in the national team and by using scientific methods to help with the preparation and performance of players.

These were no doubt contributing factors but in my opinion the overriding reasons for their World Cup success were the development of team discipline, an emphasis on attention to details and the team’s overall efficiency.

TEAM DISCIPLINE

In the World Cup Germany won the hardest group in the first round including a 4-0 win over Portugal. But it was in the knockout rounds that the overall quality of the team began to appear when they patiently overcame a resolute Algeria and beat host and favorite Brazil 7-1 in the semi-final.

How were they able to do this? The short answer is that it was largely due to discipline. In 7 games, they never conceded a penalty, got only 6 yellow cards and never received a red card while suffering the third most number of fouls of any team.

This discipline did not emerge overnight. As head coach Joachim Loew said «it was the product of many years of work». It started 10 years ago from the days of previous coach Jurgen Klinsmann.

They adopted a ‘team-first approach’ to their game I.e. the players must maintain a belief in collective goals and a consistent commitment to training and preparation on a daily basis.

What emerged from the experience of watching the German team in the World Cup was a model for a young player to learn by evaluating his or her own commitment to the team.

The standards exhibited by the Germans were that a player must make the most of every opportunity on the field, buy into the team’s collective goals, set aside one’s own personal agenda and focus on the team’s objectives.

A high level of mental discipline in controlling emotions in the heat of the competition is also important. A player must stay disciplined and not lose control of his emotions, get sent off and leave the team to play a man down.

Regardless of how much discipline a team has, the process of finding ultimate success is not complete until it acquires another standard set by Germany, namely, attention to detail.

ATTENTION TO DETAIL

Before the World Cup 50 students from the University of Cologne compiled a database of information about every team, their structure and players which was made available to the German squad.

In Brazil, the Germans set up base by building a 14 villa luxury compound in the middle of a small town of 800 people protected by high walls and armed guards.

It was located in a tropical area in order to prepare the players for the hot conditions they would experience. Care was taken to use grass on the training pitch that was identical to that used on Brazilian pitches.

The camp was like a fortress, made to exclude all outside distractions but ideal for focus and concentration. The players were isolated from the outside world and were given new cell phone numbers to avoid receiving calls from anyone. And of course they had the usual complement of physical fitness specialists and psychologists.

Attention to detail also focused on tactics on the field.

Each player knew what he had to do and did it. Each of the 6 matches leading up to the final was treated as a warm-up and there was no celebration for winning until after the final.

After a close extra-time win over Algeria in the round of 16, the captain Philipp Lahm was moved from the midfield to full back for the last 3 matches. This change of tactic worked because after that they scored 9 and conceded only 2 goals.

It was noticeable that when Germany was defending, their front men retreated into deep positions to help the defense especially to recover balls that rebounded from their keeper. In contrast, when Mexico lost to Holland the Mexican strikers failed to do this; in the 88th minute Mexico was leading and a shot rebounded from Mexican keeper Ochoa and went straight to Dutch attacker, Wesley Sneijder who was unmarked and able to convert it. This neglect of a small detail cost Mexico a place in the quarter final.

GOAL EXPECTATION AND EFFICIENCY

In a study conducted among European clubs for the season 2012-2013, to measure the overall efficiency of teams (I.e. the number of goals scored in relation to chances created), two measures were used:-

«Shooting efficiency» measures whether you score more goals than are expected (probable) given the quality of chances you are presented with, and

«Defensive efficiency» measures to see if the number of goals conceded is lower compared to the expectation.

Interestingly the only team that appears in the top 15% in both measures is Bayern Munich (STATS BOMB- Goal Expectation and Efficiency, by Colin Trainor, August 6, 2013). The relevance of this is that the German national team is predominantly made up of Bayern Munich players. They are almost one and the same.

Not for the first time the words «Germany» and «efficiency» appear in the same sentence. In the World Cup this efficiency traversed onto the field of play. In the game against Brazil, Germany were outshot by Brazil 18-14 despite the one-sided result and in the final, Argentina created 3 clear chances and missed them while Germany created one which was taken and so they won.

With the largest population and the richest economy in Europe, Germany has an available pool of young talent and could spend about 1.1 billion dollars since 2001 on the soccer revolution. What has emerged is not a once-in-a-lifetime «golden generation» of players but a sustainable system that can produce great players at the highest level for a long time.

Victor A. Dixon

July 31, 2014

1983 – The Road of Kapil's Devils to a World Cup

No! I am not going to bore you with a story every child in India can tell you. I want to ponder a little on the Indian cricketing fortunes before the actual win. I watched an interview of Imran Khan recently and he said that India's win of 1983 was a higher achievement than his team's (Pakistan) 1992 victory in Australia. The simple reason he cave was that the quality of opposition in 1983 was higher. This Khan is not someone who will praise an Indian achievement easily. This should give you some idea about the magnitude of this achievement. And how important this man Kapildev was to Indian cricket!

The way Indian cricket developed since the British Raj will give you an idea that they were basically docile cricketers who played on docile wickets against strong and aggressive opponents. The test record of India around independence is terrible and I believe they played not to win but to not lose too badly. I think Pataudi Jr with a positive head to head record was the first captain that sort of instilled a fighting spirit in the team and a desire to win. Not to say that there were no aggressive players in the Indian team. In fact, India's first captain was CK Naidu who was a big guy and a big hitter. He flayed the MCC team in an innings of 153 in 2 hours that people still remember. He hit 11 sixes in the innings. He must have scared the living daylights out of the MCC bowlers. But winning in cricket consistently is not just about one man's heroics. Those were different times and probably it was a different scenario. The transition of Indian cricket team continued with Sunil Gavaskar who despite not aggressive by nature was an excellent thinker of the game and took the Indian cricket forward with quality batsmanship and captainship.

In came Kapildev in 1979 and a world-class aggressive bounce bowler and all-rounder arrived giving India the aggressive edge that it lacked. India played in the 1975 world cup but the only match they won was against East Africa. The next match they won was in 1978. Of course, there was not much one-day cricket played those days. This was followed by another terrible world cup in 1979 where they failed to win a single match. But slowly with the support initially from Karsan Ghavari and Roger Binny onto Madanlal, Sandhu and Mohinder Amarnath Kapil found pace bowling partners. Not life threatening quick bowlers but accurate and they could swing the ball. Now in the 1983 world cup team, except Sandhu all these bowlers were all all-rounders; this was another plus. Kapil himself had several qualities. Apart from being a world-class all-rounder, he was a great motivator. And that unbelievable hitting ability which can be matched only with Vivian Richards from his generation I think. Different batsmen mind you and Kapil was less reliable as a batsman than Viv but, when he came off, very very effective indeed. This man, out of nowhere, when everyone was ridiculing the Indians, installed a belief in the team that they could win. And they actually started winning matches in the Prudential Cup 1983. That innings against Zimbabwe and the catch of Viv Richards in the final tells you that this man was awesome and was game to the possibility of a world cup win when mere mortals would have given up .

He was supported wholeheartedly by the team in 1983. Boy, if the opponents had stepped into the Indian dressing rooms and, understood the good old Hindi, they would have realized who was going to win. The press and the opponents just kept thinking Indian victories on the road to finals were a fluke. Just about everyone in the team contributed to the team cause in one way or the other. This world cup win came against sides that were really great such as West Indies and Australia. Other good teams such as Pakistan, England put their claim forward but there was no stopping the Kapil's devils.

Like after every great victory the team had a lean period and Kapil lost captaincy as well. But the great man kept performing either with the bat or with the ball and sometimes both. There was a term for him in Indian cricket called "Dada" cricketer meaning he was like a big brother of the team. He could win matches from hapless situations just with his cricketing abilities alone. The way Kapil played his game, free of care and with just the goal in mind bought the team together to give the country its greatest sporting triumph for till date!