The Spanish Legacy of Fruit: The Moors and The Orange

Who introduced the orange to Spain?

Earlier civilisations than the Moors had seen the introduction of the orange to Spain and the cultivation of them had already started in many areas of Asia. The Romans too had cultivated them in conquered areas of Africa. However, when the Empire fell in the 5th century and the sacking began, trade between the continents and Europe failed to see the orange. It was reintroduced by the Moors centuries later after they overthrew the unpopular reign of the Visigoths in Spain.

Their advanced irrigation techniques (as mentioned in «Moorish Influence on Spanish Life») helped them to populate the groves with the fruit described by the Greek Legends as the «Golden Apple» given to Hera on her wedding day to Zeus. The name for this famous fruit derives from the Moorish Sanskrit word «Narangah» and evolved into the English word «orange» used today.

How many different types of orange are there?

There are two scientific classifications of the orange which can be broken down into bitter and sweet. The bitter orange is the fruit the Moors first introduced and is more commonly known today as the Seville orange. The bitter orange is not an edible fruit and in the time of the Moors it was mainly used for religious, marital and medicinal purposes as well as flavourings in drinks. Today this orange is mainly exported to Britain where they use it to make marmalade based on a recipe that first appeared in a cookbook back in 1587. There is very little marmalade made in Spain itself.

What are the most common varieties?

It was Christopher Columbus and the Conquistadors that introduced the orange to the New World over five centuries ago. The Valencia variety is one of the sweetest and this fruit besides Spain is also grown in the US and South America for processing into juice: one of America’s listed commodities and quoted on their stock exchange. Navel oranges are a mutated species and this variety was discovered in Brazil and is specifically unique due to its form. The Sanguin – the blood orange is most common in Spain and Italy and is commonly used for juicing as well as being enjoyed as a whole fruit.

What health benefits does the orange contain?

The orange has plenty of good stuff in it, packed full of vitamin C, ascorbic and folic acid, vitamin B6, antioxidants, pectin (which is also extracted from apple) and dietary fibre as well as lots of minerals.

The vitamin C alongside these other properties can prevent the damage from free radicals that can cause cancer inside the body. It can also reduce the effects that these radicals have towards inciting asthma, rheumatism and osteoarthritis. The antioxidants dissolve build of cholesterol delaying serious health problems such as heart attack and stroke. Also diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, multiple sclerosis, cholera and diabetes can also be prevented as well as reducing the anxiety of gallstones.

The healthiest part of the orange lies in the rind (epicarp) which is often discarded in the process of juicing. Well cleaned oranges can be grated and the zest used to flavour many different types of food preparation. There are many tasty recipes on the internet using this much neglected part of the fruit: an ideal way of getting the vitamin C content you need as well as tantalising the taste buds with increased flavour. Some alcohol brands also use the zest in their liquors.

How do you grow an orange?

Unlike the olive tree which is written about in my other article » The Romans and The Olive » – the orange tree is not as robust and is susceptible to many diseases as well as frost, so careful knowledge of cultivation has to be used. Also most commercial oranges that are globally transported have to be able to survive the journey and the hardiest versions are those that come from grafted trees.

Seeds for these trees are produced into established seedlings (rootstock) and these are then grafted onto a budwood from an existing tree which determines the variety. This method of cultivation also helps selective reproduction such as size of tree, productivity as well as sustainability. However, this does affect the quality but produces oranges that otherwise may not be available to those countries that cannot produce them.

Besides juice, marmalade and the whole fruit, what else can we use an orange for?

These are the most often used forms of an orange, the blossom is used for perfume, and to make tea in Spain. Hives situated in orange groves can give the honey its distinctive flavour. The wood from the orange tree is used to make the sticks called cuticle pushers for manicurists as well as flavouring barbecues by burning it as fuel. The rind can also be used as a slug repellent.

AC MILAN MAGLIA GARA THIRD 2018/19 AC MILAN MAGLIA GARA THIRD 2018/19

Get Active With a Holiday in Palma De Mallorca

A holiday in Palma de Mallorca will offer holidaymakers sun, sea and sand in multitudes. However, there is a fourth that is sure to delight holidaymakers. Sports.

With a rich sporting background, tourists to the city – the largest in Mallorca and the capital of the Balearic Islands – will find plenty of activities to take part in.

And with the sun on their backs, visitors may be inclined to take advantage of the good weather and indulge in some tennis. Hosting a number of tennis academies, Palma de Mallorca could be an ideal destination for those looking to perfect their smash and volley and perhaps follow in the footsteps of tennis pro Rafael Nadal, who was born on the island.

Of course, the city’s waterfront location also means there are a multitude of watersports to take part in, including swimming, snorkelling, diving and sailing.

Meanwhile, those looking to take a more passive approach to sport may want to head to the city’s Can Valero district. Home to the ONO Estadi stadium, visitors will be able to watch La Liga side Real Mallorca in action against teams such as Barcelona and Real Madrid.

Whatever athletic pursuit their day has been taken up by, tourists may wish to head back to their villas in Mallorca to have a quick bath or shower, change clothes and head back out into the city for something to eat. And with the fare on hand ranging from traditional tapas to Indian cuisine, there is certain to be something to tickle everyone’s tastebuds.

When walking back to their accommodation – which may include the city’s numerous villas – tourists looking to burn off some calories may wish to take in some of the local attractions, with the old Arab Baths and Almudaina Palace among the numerous monuments and sites of historical significance in Mallorca.

And with so much to see and do, why not make Palma de Mallorca your next Mallorcan holiday destination?

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FPL GW16: KNEEJERK LIVE STREAM | TIME FOR RASHFORD? | Fantasy Premier League Tips 2019/20



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LIVERPOOL 5-2 EVERTON | PREMIER LEAGUE HIGHLIGHTS



A nightmare Merseyside derby at Anfield as the Blues suffer a heavy defeat to rivals Liverpool. Goals from Richarlison and Michael Keane turned out to be mere consolation as the hosts picked up the win via Divock Origi (2), Xherdan Shaqiri, Sadio Mane and Gini Wijnaldum.

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Leicester City v. Watford | PREMIER LEAGUE HIGHLIGHTS | 12/04/19 | NBC Sports



The Foxes battled to victory against a lively Watford side to extend their winning streak to seven consecutive matches. #NBCSports #PremierLeague #LeicesterCity #Watford

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Leicester City v. Watford | PREMIER LEAGUE HIGHLIGHTS | 12/04/19 | NBC Sports

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Should Man City concentrate on the Champions League over the Premier League? | The Debate



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Paul Meron, Jamie O’Hara and Clinton Morrison discuss Liverpool’s fantastic run of results at the top of the table, and whether Manchester City believe they can still win the title, or if they should concentrate on the Champions League instead.

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HIGHLIGHTS | Norwich City 2-2 Arsenal | Premier League | Dec 01, 2019



We had to settle for a point from an entertaining clash at Norwich in Freddie Ljungberg’s first match as our interim head coach on Sunday.

After a particularly trying period, the Swede’s ascension to become our interim head coach had created a real sense of positivity – and the way we opened this match reflected that.

We were playing with more freedom than had been previously evident, and imposing ourselves on the hosts and pinning them back for extended periods.

But for all the neat interplay and one-touch passing, we were unable to find a way through – although both Joe Willock and Shkodran Mustafi came close – and the hosts eventually punished us.

Teemu Pukki’s opening goal had more than a touch of fortune about it, hitting the unfortunate Mustafi and spinning beyond Bernd Leno, but we responded well and were awarded a penalty for a handball three minutes later.

The decision was checked on VAR but eventually confirmed – and while Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang saw his initial spot kick saved by Tim Krul, the video referee ordered it to be retaken for encroachment. This time Auba made no mistake.

But were fell behind once again right on the stroke of half time when Norwich broke again through the dangerous Onel Hernandez, who found Todd Cantwell in space and the midfielder slotted it into the far corner.

Here was the first test of Ljungberg’s reign as he sought to lift his team at the interval, and they were soon back on the front foot at the start of the second half – only to have a penalty shout waved away for what looked like another handball.

But we got our equaliser in the 56th minute when Aubameyang struck his 10th Premier League goal of the season, curling in from close range after meeting a loose ball in the box. Game on.

Almost instantly, Bernd Leno was called into action to make a superb reaction save to deny Kenny McLean, before Cantwell fired wide moments later and then Leno was called into action to keep out Pukki’s effort.

As we entered the closing stages, there was a half chance for Mesut Ozil but the hosts were really piling on the pressure and Leno had to make a fine save to deny Max Aarons.

Torreira had a goalbound shot blocked deep into injury time, but there was to be no late twist, and we had to settle for a point.

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Sheffield United v. Arsenal | PREMIER LEAGUE HIGHLIGHTS | 10/21/19 | NBC Sports



A set-piece goal was the difference at Bramall Lane, as Lys Mousset’s close-range finish was enough to lift Sheffield United to a 1-0 win over Arsenal. #NBCSports #PremierLeague #SheffieldUnited #Arsenal #LysMousset
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Sheffield United v. Arsenal | PREMIER LEAGUE HIGHLIGHTS | 10/21/19 | NBC Sports

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Manchester United v. Leicester City | PREMIER LEAGUE HIGHLIGHTS | 9/14/19 | NBC Sports



An early Marcus Rashford penalty lifted Manchester United past Leicester City at Old Trafford. #NBCSports #PremierLeague #ManUnited #Leicester #MarcusRashford
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The Premier League across NBC Sports Group launched in 2013 with their biggest and broadest programming commitment to-date in the United States. With live multi-platform coverage of all 380 games, analysis from best-in-class talent and extensive surrounding coverage all week long, NBC Sports Group has become the ultimate destination for new and existing Premier League fans.

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Manchester United v. Leicester City | PREMIER LEAGUE HIGHLIGHTS | 9/14/19 | NBC Sports

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Brasilia: Brazil’s Fantasy Island

South America is one of the most biodiverse regions in the world.

The continent is home to twelve independent countries (and three territories). The countries (from roughly north to south and east to west) are:

Venezuela, capital Caracas

Guyana, capital Georgetown

Suriname, capital Paramaribo

Colombia, capital Bogotá

Brazil, capital Brasilia

Ecuador, capital Quito

Peru, capital Lima

Bolivia, capital La Paz

Chile, capital Santiago

Argentina, capital Buenos Aires

Paraguay, capital Asunción

Uruguay, capital Montevideo

Nature lovers come here to see the vast array of birds and wildlife, particularly along the Amazon River which runs roughly east-west, mostly through Peru and Brazil, with many tributaries which reach out into Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela. Several companies offer tour boats to take passengers up and down the river for birding and wild-animal viewing.

Archaeology and history enthusiasts come to South America to view the many Incan ruins. Machu Picchu, located in Peru, is perhaps the most famous of these. It was built in 1450, abandoned in about 1550, and unknown (except to natives indigenous to the region) until it was discovered by an American historian, Hiram Bingham in 1911. While Machu Picchu is the most famous, it is certainly not the only Incan ruin in South America which draws the curious traveler.

People are fascinated by the architectural remains of these Incan ruins, built over 500 years ago with a precision that astounds the modern day tourist who find it difficult to believe that «primitive» people could construct buildings of such magnificence.

But when it comes to a modern-day wonder, Brasilia, the capital city of Brazil, has got to be on the list.

Capital Cities

Most cities have both an «old town» – the site of the original area of the city, with buildings hundreds of years old; and then acres and acres of new buildings, roads and so on which are built gradually over the course of time, with the roads meandering here and there and no planning to it.

Of all the capital cities of the South American countries, that of Brasilia, capital of Brazil, is unique. It’s the only city that was actually planned, with the entire layout of the city being designed by an architect.

The centers of all three branches of the federal government of Brazil are in Brasília, including the Congress, President, and Supreme Court. The city also hosts 124 foreign embassies. Brasília International Airport connects the capital to all major Brazilian cities and many international destinations, and is the third busiest airport in Brazil.

The city has a unique status in Brazil, as it is an administrative division rather than a legal municipality like other cities in Brazil. The name ‘Brasília’ is commonly used as a synonym for the Federal District through synecdoche; However, the Federal District is composed of 31 administrative regions, only one of which is Brasília proper, with a population of 209,926 in a 2011 survey; Demographic publications generally do not make this distinction and list the population of Brasília as synonymous with the population of the Federal District, considering the whole of it as its metropolitan area. The city was one of the main host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, Brasília hosted the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup.

Brasilia: Planned Beauty

There are many reasons to visit Brasilia, of course, but the main reason is to take in the beauty of the design and see how it has grown and evolved over the 55 years since its founding. In 1987, UNESCO acknowledged the uniqueness of Brasilia by making it a World Heritage Site.

Brazil is the largest country in South America, and until 1960 its capital city was Rio de Janeiro. In that year, the brand-new city of Brasilia was named the capital.

Brasilia didn’t spring up overnight. The new city took four years to build, beginning in 1956.

It was planned and designed by three Brazilians: architect and urban planner Lúcio Costa, architect Oscar Niemeyer who designed the government buildings, and landscape architect Roberto Burle Marx.

The city is built along the Monumental Axis, or main avenue running the width of the city, with six lanes running north and six lanes running south. Most of the government buildings, as well as dozens of monuments and memorials line the Monumental Axis, and it is this avenue that will enable the tourist to get the full impact of this unique city.

The residential areas of the inner city are arranged with precision into «superblocks,» each one consisting of several apartment buildings and schools, retail stores, and parkland to serve the inhabitants.

Brasilia features a metro (or Underground), and is served by buses and of course taxis, for those who don’t wish to drive themselves. The city is served by the Brasília-Presidente Juscelino Kubitschek International Airport.