Coffee Culture In 2016

Like most cultures, coffee culture is no different really. A group of people brought together by a common interest. What better place than a coffee shop. There is always a buzz, and hive of activity. It attracts in some ways, so many like minded people, and in other ways such a variety. From businessmen, to housewives, students to teachers. Hundreds of years ago, they were popular meeting places for artists. A few years ago, Wine Masters were popping up everywhere, and now the latest trend seems to be becoming a Barrister. We were fortunate enough to be able to interview Winston, one of the top up and coming Barristers in the Country.

These days no matter where I am, or what I am doing, coffee seems to be screaming out at me! Coffee culture, coffee culture! Most people have coffee making machines, and there are shops dedicated to selling only coffee. We are so spoilt for choice, that it is difficult to know which coffee to drink, when, where and why? I am attending a Barristers course early next month, and will be back with loads more information on what all the different coffee beans are, and how to choose between them.

Meanwhile, not sure about you, but I am getting extremely confused between the different ways to drink coffee. Gone are the days when we only had the choice between an espresso and a cappuccino. And worse still, when I grew up, we either had instant or percolated coffee. Now we have a whole range of ways to drink our coffee:

– Latte: A coffee mixed with a frothed milk foam.

– Americana: Made by adding hot water to a mug with a tot of espresso coffee in it.

– Iced Coffee: Chilled coffee with a dollop of vanilla ice cream.

– Cappuccino: A cup of coffee covered in a layer of frothed milk foam.

– Skinny Cappuccino. The same as a cappuccino, but made with fat free milk.

– Flat white: A cup of coffee with milk.

– Espresso: Extremely strong, and dense, with «crema» (coffee foam on the top). Hence, café crema being an alternative name for an Italian espresso.

– Macchiato: A cup of frothed milk, filled up with an espresso coffee.

– Moccachino: A café latte with chocolate added to it.

– Frappe. A coffee with ice, served black or white.

And to make coffee even more enticing, many Countries around the world have their own special coffees, such as:

Caffe Au Lait: France

Egg Coffee: Vietnam

Turkish Coffee: Turkey

Café Bombon: Spain

Café Cubana: Cuba

Wiener: Vienna

Palazzo: USA

Caffe De Ola: Mexico

To top it off we have alcoholic coffee drinks, like an Irish coffee, Bavarian coffee, Café royal, Kalua coffee, and even coffee liquors.

I have to say that my favourite is still a cappuccino. It has to be made with the best quality coffee beans, and brimming over the top of the mug with foam. If you can convince me otherwise, please share with me the way you love your coffee.

Winston’s Interview..

How did you get involved with espresso coffee. How did it all start?

Without romanticizing too much, there was a complaint in my local newspaper about the bad coffee served in my town. That was about 5 years ago. After reading that I started tasting different coffees trying to figure out what a good cup of coffee really was. This eventually led me to Origin Coffee Roasting where I did a barista course while studying in 2013. I worked part time at a roaster in Somerset West and a market in Woodstock until I completed my studies in June 2014. I started working full time at Origin in August 2014.

What makes you continue to work as a barista? Is the job repetitious?

No it’s not repetitious. It may seem that way because, on the opposite end of the bar, it looks like we’re just pouring coffee every day but that’s far from it. We’re using different coffees every day so there’s a lot of tasting involved, the weather is always changing which means the coffee pours differently throughout the day so we have to work accordingly, we meet different people every day, face different challenges on a daily basis etc. So far from repetitious. And that’s exactly why I continue to work as a barista.

Where do you find your inspiration?

I find my inspiration by looking at all the people involved in the coffee cycle. From the farmer, to the green coffee buyer, the roaster, barista and finally the consumer. To know that I play a role in this process gives me the inspiration to try my hardest to serve the best cup of coffee possible. To justice to those who have played their part before me.

What is the new «in» in the current coffee industry?

To be honest I think that quality has become the new «in» in the coffee industry. More and more café are trying to produce better coffee, which makes things very competitive in terms of quality. This drives the industry in a positive direction. More cafés are also beginning to use alternative or filter brew methods like the aeropress and v60 pourover to make filter coffee. This is best enjoyed black without sugar to ensure that the nuisances and characteristics of the coffee can be picked up.

What kind of coffee do you like/not like to make

I like making all kinds of coffee. There is espresso based coffees like your typical Americano and latte and there is filter brew like the French press or aeropress. I can’t say I dislike making certain types of coffees but I do sometimes cringe when customers want an unusual order that takes away the emphasis of the coffee. For example a large milk based with a single shot and soya milk will completely overshadow the flavor of the coffee. But at the end of the day coffee is subjective and we cannot tell the customers what it is they like or dislike, we can only give advice and hopefully guide them.

What is the most time consuming coffee to make?

I’d say the filter methods we use in our café is the most time consuming. The French press takes about 5 minutes to complete. Whereas espresso based takes roughly 2 minutes.

What can you tell me about Coffee Culture?

Coffee Culture. Where do I start? Well right now in the coffee industry (worldwide) we’re experiencing what we call «Third wave.» «First wave» would be defined as the way our parents might’ve had their coffee. Instant coffee or a dark roasted Italian blend in the household filter machine. There was no real coffee or café culture. Then, with the arrival of Starbucks and other commercial coffee chains, the «Second wave» of coffee individuals evolved. People became more aware of what they were drinking and the trend of takeaway espresso based drinks like lattes and cappuccinos started.

Right now we’re experiencing «Third wave» where people in the coffee have become more conscious of the quality of the coffee they buy. Some companies going as far as establishing direct trade with farmers so they contribute to improving farming methods, exporting etc.

Green coffee beans are roasted with precision and a lot of care is taken in preparing both espresso based and filter drinks. Along with this, consumers are also conscious of the quality of coffee in cafes. Consumers know what they want when buying coffee, more so than before. And they are also a lot more educated. Because of this you find more cafes opening and more consumers visiting cafes thus a growing café culture. Bigger than before.

Tell me about the competitions you have won and what lies ahead for you.

Most recently I’ve won the South African National Aeropress title. The aeropress is basically a filtering device used to make coffee. And I won the national competition so I’ll be competing in the World Aeropress championships in Dublin, Ireland in June. I also came 2nd in the Western Cape Barista competition and 8th in the National Barista competition. In the future I’d like to enter more competitions with the goal of winning and competing at the World Barista Competition.

Your dream?

My dream is to put Africa on the map for coffee. As a continent we produce some of the best tasting coffees in the world but, other than in South Africa, we don’t necessarily serve this as it should be served. Most of the high quality coffee produced in Africa is exported and lower grade commercial coffees are left. I’d like to change this. Coffee was founded in Africa so I feel that we have a responsibility to be serving the best tasting African coffees in our cafes.

Marrying Yourself: Positive Songs, Positive Music And New Marriage

Chante Moore is known for love songs which are seen as positive songs by listeners all over the globe. Hits like "Chante's Got A Man" are balanced by her large repertoire of mellow songs. Some positive music, including one (and possibly more) of Chante's love songs, can be used in weddings and commitment ceremonies. Those songs are relaxing and ideal for ceremony. The type of marriage involved has typically featured a couple. Chante broke new ground when debuting on a reality show and deciding to marry herself. The act was documented on the television show; it represented the theme of a book which was released around the same time period.

Her book was marked as a source of self-love material. Positive songs about romantic love provide the perfect opportunity to describe how self-love is important. By writing this material, Chante merged the romance with wisdom and the music. While we can not all marry ourselves on a network television show, Chante's example showed that positive music and its' singers do not have to stick to the status quo. And, in fact, if they have something interesting and informative to share, they will often depart from the status quo at some point: sharing information that is seen as marginal and uncommon.

Another artist willing to break the mold, Queen Latifah, went through a similar theme in her life. In past songs, Latifah has advocated for more respect for women and more unity among people as a whole. In her past appearance on an episode of The Oprah Winfrey Show, Latifah expressed that she was currently discovering and loving herself day by day. She described the unique move while wearing a wedding ring, which she was asked about by the show's host. Latifah's comments would suggest allegiance with a similar theme in the self-love community- real love begins with self-love.

Music can be a motivating. Backing up the positive songs with action can increase the effectiveness. When you're reaching for relationship happiness, and lowering your standards, this can mean you will have to talk yourself into things- instead of being completely clear on sincerity, you have to ask questions, repeatedly play devil's advocate, to turn away from the internal pulls which signal problems.

Positive music and can help us remember how we are supposed to be treated and treat others. And unique methods, like self-love marriage, can make it that much harder for us not to follow through with the messages in the music.

Must-Know Bayern Munich Facts for Readers

FC Bayern Munich is one of the most celebrity football clubs in the world. The club, which is popularly known as FC Bayern or even called FCB, competes in the top-tier of German football system, commonly known as Bundesliga. Without any shade of doubt, Bayern Munich has been the most consistent performer in Bundesliga. They are the most successful entity in Bundesliga. The article is intended to share some amazing Bayern Munich facts with the readers.

Bayern Munich – Story of Success

The club has climbed to the crest of success since its establishment back in 1900. Franz John along with eleven players took the leading role to set up the club. It was in 1932 when the Bavarian side claimed their first national champions title. The club kissed their greatest success in the 1970s. Bayern won the European title in 1974 and successfully defended the same in the next two seasons under great captaincy of Franz Beckenbauer who is considered one of the greatest players football has ever produced.

Among the Bundesliga clubs, Bayern has marched their way to the finals of the UEFA Champions League for the maximum number of times. The club has been the most dominant one in Bundesliga. Though the club was not a part of Bundesliga during its inception, it has won the Bundesliga title for the highest number of time. The club has wrapped up UEFA Cup, FIFA Club World Cup, UEFA Super Cup, European Cup Winners Cup and also International Cups.

In a word, the club has earned respect and popularity on strength of its success both on national and international level. They have produced several football legends. Several Bayern Munich players were in the World Cup winning German team in 2014.

Bayern Munich – Rich in Resources

Bayern Munich is rich in resources both in terms of money and talent. As per the latest reports, the club is one of the wealthiest entities in the world of football. The club attracts both fresh and experienced footballers from all over the globe. They also nourish the young prospects at their own academy. The club has been managed by a number of brilliant coaches and is currently under the stewardship of Carlo Ancelotti.

Rivalry & Jersey

Bayern Munich and Borussia Dortmund have become arch rivals since mid of 1990s. Their rivalry has become more infamous as Bayern has been alleged of attracting the star players from Borussia Dortmund in order to maintain their monopoly in Bundesliga. The club’s boys play in ‘red and white’ jersey. A ‘white and blue’ flag is the crest of Bayern.

Stadium & Members

The club has its home ground at the Allianz Arena. Olympiastadion used to be their home ground for 33 long years. Being popular internationally, the club has fans and followers all over the world.

FIFA World Cup – Interesting Facts!

1930

Did you know- Uruguayan squad, the host country’s team,claimed the first-ever Men’s World Cup title over Argentina, 4-2.

1934

Did you know- At the II World Cup, Italy, host country, became the first European squad to win a global tournament. The subsequent tournaments were held as follows: 1938 in Paris (France, Europe), 1950 in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, Latin America), 1958 in Stockholm (Sweden, Europe), 1962 in Santiago (Chile, Latin America), 1966 in London (England, Europe), 1970 in Mexico City (Mexico, Latin America), 1974 in Munich (West Germany, Europe), 1978 in Buenos Aires (Argentina, South America), 1982 in Barcelona (Spain, Europe), 1986 in Mexico City (Mexico, North America), 1990 in Rome (Italy, Europe), 1994 in Los Angeles (USA, North America), 1998 in Paris (France, Europe), 2002 in Seoul and Tokyo (South Korea & Japan, Asia), 2006 in Munich (Germany, Europe).

1950

Did you know- Bolivia competed in 1950 but not again until 1994 in the United States of America.

1974

Did you know- For the first time, West Germany hosted the global tournament in July 1974. Historically Germany had been competitive in soccer. Under the leadership Franz («Kaiser») Beckenbauer, the host country-which never finished below sixth place since 1954– won the X FIFA World Tournament. Outside of the Berlin Olympics (1936) and the Munich Games (1972), this event was the largest ever held in Germany.

1978

Did you know- Tunisia (Africa) placed ninth at the 1978 FIFA World Championship in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

1982

Did you know- At the 1982 FIFA World Tournament in Madrid (Spain), New Zealand, a rugby-loving nation, had the worst result for its region -Oceania- in World Cup’s history. Unfortunately NZ placed 23rd. For the country, it was its first appearance in the universal event.

1990

Did you know- At the 1990 FIFA World Championship in Europe,Cameroon’s football player Roger Milla, one of sub-Saharan Africa’s most respected footballers in the 20th century, helped his team towards eighth position, the best result ever for an African country in soccer history.

2002- 2010

Did you know- Brazil -one of the world’s biggest democracies– has historically been competitive in football since the 1950s.The soccer players from Brazil have conquered five out of eighteen tournaments: Sweden’58, Chile’62, Mexico’70, USA’94 and South Korea & Japan’02. In 1950 and 1998, Brazil was runner-up. By 2010, the Latin American nation is attempting to become the first country to win six World Cup titles in football history.

2010

Did you know- The 19th global tournament will be held in South Africa, one of the youngest members of the FIFA. It’ll be the largest event ever held in Africa. There’s only event that rivals the FIFA World Cup: the Summer Olympics.

IPL Vs ICC World Cup Cricket!

While most of the ICC World Cup-2019 squads of various nations are having or are going to have training camps soon for the all-important event India continue to have just Indian Premiere League (IPL-2019). Well…

That Virat Kohli continued to captain Royal Challengers Bangalore (RCB) even after the most disgraceful proceedings as far as the team performances are concerned has obvious reason. Being a superlative cricketer that he is and also being Team India captain Virat had been the star attraction of the IPL-2019. Therefore, despite the upsetting losses he was still having most of the commercial time on the air along with some of his non-performers, and an appetizing element of suspense being maintained by the cricketing experts or the media or the spectators that he might stage a comeback for his franchise yet, and who knows..! For similar reasons in terms of money and glamour Indian cricketers just could not leave the IPL halfway while many of the other international cricketers had already left or were leaving for training or preparatory camps of their respective countries. A camp should ideally be one-month long, and most countries were following that in right earnest. However, the last match of IPL scheduled on 12th May, 2019 Team India didn’t have even a fortnight to prepare with the ICC World Cup-2019 staring on 30th May, 2019 in England and Wales. Further, there had been no news so far if there was indeed going to be an Indian camp or not.

IPL has been an enigma in different ways. Many cricket experts and some sports journalists believed that competitive IPL was providing good enough match practice for the coming international tournament. This was a highly contentious issue. The format of T20 is entirely different with the bowlers not able to bowl more than 4 overs each, and batsmen desperately trying to hit sixes or fours with the little time available. How is it going to provide good practice to score as well as stick on the fast England pitches in the one-day international (ODI) or 50-over matches? Besides, stalwarts like Sourav Ganguly kept on making controversial statements intermixing T20 with the ODI format. Ganguly, going gaga over a match winning innings of Rishav Pant recently, said that this world cup was not the end of the road for him, there will more to follow in at least 15 years to come, adding to the astonishing hype created over the non-selection of Pant for the World Cup-2019. A few days later he said that the form of Virat Kohli in this IPL was no indication for the coming World Cup. Well, it was all of a matter of convenience to analyze IPL in the intended ways as was evident from such comments. The day or rather the night when RCB got finally knocked out of the tournament some media personnel were very quick to add that now Virat Kohli should concentrate only on preparing for the World Cup!

God forbid, the IPL could be the biggest stumbling block for the World Cup as far Team India’s performance in that event is concerned. Competitive club bonanza is no match for the international event where pride of nation is much more important than money and glitz. On the other hand if some players had benefited from the IPL they all belonged to rival teams. For example, Warner and Smith from Australia prospered very well just after coming back from serving a one-year ban for the ball-tampering scandal, good batting practice, and now the preparatory camp in addition; some of the Caribbean cricketers also benefited hugely from this tournament with a few of them making it to the World Club squad, and now going to have the training camp too. Only Indian cricketers had toiled like maniacs on slow-flat domestic pitches with no road to exit, and now will be leaving for England without any preparation in terms of physical conditioning. And also, they would definitely be fated to face the superstars created by this IPL in rival teams in the coming international event.

Whichever way it goes, Team India is still favored hugely to lift the World Cup-2019, and we believe too in that positivity. If Virat had problems in IPL captaincy he will have Dhoni and Rohit on his side in the World Cup. However, we still lament the possible lack of any preparatory camp for India to land in England reactivated sans the IPL hangover. And then, this time the ICC World Cup will be fought on a round-robin basis with each of the 10 teams playing each other once, and the top four teams making it to the semi-final stage. This promises to be a saga of super cricketing rivalry with the first match taking place on 30th May, 2019. Happy cricketing times to all the lovers of this game.

The Thrill of the 2010 FIFA World Cup Finals

Football was originally played and devised in the United Kingdom, and then afterwards it is introduced by the British to most of its colonized territories like the African nation South Africa. Few more years and it gained popularity among sports enthusiasts not only in Europe but to almost every country in the world.

Its recent popularity and worldwide acceptance pave the way for the institution of its governing body, the Federation Internationale de Football Association (International Federation of Association Football) which is now the world renamed FIFA. For most of the years FIFA has been the organizer of various football tournaments and implementation of every rules regarding the sport. One of the main football tournaments would be the FIFA World Cup. The FIFA World Cup is held every four years and now on its 19th league. Surely it has a history of non-stopping thrill and excitation all through the world.

The 2010 FIFA championship is currently being held in South Africa and has been participated by the best of all football players of different countries. It concluded last June 11 and is expected to have a heart pounding 2010 World Cup Finals. This year's tournament can be considered as the 2010 finals since the qualification process have already been started and selected from August of 2008 to date, including pre-losses during the 2008 Summer Olympics. Last August 2007 there have already been 204 participating and contending countries from the total members of 208.

This year's 2010 soccer finals is expected to be the most awaited sporting event of the year and is expected to be the most viewed with the sunset of numerous worldwide media coverage and streams, and major information spread. South Africa is the country host of this year's 2010 finals, defeating Morocco and Egypt in the process of bidding. South Africa is said to be the home of many football fans and enthusiasts alike. A lot of football stadium and mostly, the largest ones either in Africa or the World and a vast majority of players abound, from the old and young, professionals or the out of school youth.

This year's 2010 FIFA World Cup finals is a must see event where a lot of enthusiast expectations are present as to what the defending champions, that would be Italy, would have to battle with in the finals. Italy, 2006's FIFA World Cup champion will have to defend its championship title in this year's tournament. Every day, excitement and news all over the 2010 World Cup Finals is growing and gets even bigger. People from all around the world are flocking to South Africa only not to miss this event. Tickets to the finals, hotel and flights are almost full. Expect a thrilling experience this year with the 2010 World Cup Finals.

The 1932 NFL Championship Game

The Portsmouth Times called it «a sham battle on a Tom Thumb gridiron.» But, while the field may have been Lilliputian, the impact of the game on the National Football League was Brobdingnagian. It was the oddest game in NFL history, a fitting climax to one of the league’s oddest finishes.

Late in the 1932 season, it looked as if the Green Bay Packers were headed for their fourth straight NFL championship. They had an 10-1-1 record while their closest pursuers, the Chicago Bears and Portsmouth Spartans, had only nine victories between them. But the Bears and Spartans had just one loss apiece, to go with a whole bunch of ties.

On December 4, the Packers played their sixth straight game on the road, at Portsmouth. The Spartans had a 5-1-4 record going into the game. In Chicago, the Bears (4-1-6) were hosting the Giants, who had handed the Packers their only loss in New York three weeks earlier.

Under today’s method of figuring the standings, the Packers would have had the championship wrapped up. A tie now counts as a half-loss, half-win. But in 1932 a tie simply didn’t count; it was as if the game had never been played.

After Portsmouth beat Green Bay, 19-0, and the Bears beat the Giants, 6-0, the Packers were suddenly out of the running. Portsmouth’s season was over, but the Packers had one game left, against the Bears in Chicago. If the Packers won that game, the Spartans would be the new champions. If the Bears won, they’d be tied with Portsmouth for first place.

And that’s what happened. The Bears took a 9-0 victory on a snowy field with the temperature around zero. So the standings looked like this, with ties eliminated:

 	               W	L	Pct.

Chicago 6 1 .857
Portsmouth 6 1 .857
Green Bay 10 3 .769

Under today’s method, it would have looked like this:

 	               W	L	T	Pct.

Green Bay 10 3 1 .750
Portsmouth 6 1 4 .727
Chicago 6 1 6 .692

The NFL had no policy for dealing with a tie for first place at the end of the season. The league didn’t even handle scheduling–that was up to the teams themselves, so it was also up to the Bears and Spartans to figure out a way of breaking the tie. They agreed on a game at Chicago on December 11. It was not, formally, a post-season championship game, but a regular-season game tacked on at the end of the schedule.

Chicago was the obvious site for the game. With attendance down because of the Depression, both teams needed the money that a big crowd at Wrigley Field would bring in. But, because of the weather, the game between the Bears and the Packers had drawn only 5,000 fans, even with the possibility of a championship on the line, and the cold and snow continued as the championship game approached.

On Thursday, December 8, Chicago co-owner George Halas met with Potsy Clark, the Portsmouth coach, and Joe Carr. the president of the NFL, to propose moving the game indoors to Chicago Stadium. He had a precedent: The Bears and Cardinals had played an exhibition game there in 1930. He also had the weather as an argument. Chicago Stadium could hold about 16,000 spectators, and might well be filled for the game, which would probably draw only 5,000 or fewer outdoors. Clark and Carr agreed to the move, and players on both teams unanimously approved.

There was one final hurdle. The Bears had a contract that required them to play their home games at Wrigley Field. But Bill Veeck Sr., the owner of the ballpark, agreed to release them from the contract for this one game.

Chicago Stadium was primarily the home rink for the Chicago Blackhawks, but it was also used for boxing matches and other events. During the week before the football game, it had hosted a circus, so the concrete floor was covered with several inches of dirt. Truckloads of dirt, wood shavings, and bark were piled on top of that base to provide more cushioning. It didn’t however, provide much traction.

Many years later, Jim Foster got the idea for Arena Football by sketching the diagram of half a football field over the outline of a hockey rink. That was much the way the field was laid out in 1932. The arena floor was only about 80 by 50 yards at its widest dimensions. The football field compressed into that area was 60 yards from goal line to goal line and 45 yards from sideline to sideline. The end lines were rounded, and the 12-foot-high hockey dasher boards formed a fence that surrounded the whole area. The fence was about 15 feet from the sidelines at midfield (the 30-yard line), allowing room for the benches, but it almost touched the field at the goal lines and actually curved through the area where the end zones should have been. Goalposts were erected at only end of the field, and they were on the goal line rather than the end line.

Some special rules were adopted, based on the rules that had been used for a 1930 exhibition game in the stadium. Kickoffs were made from the 10-yard line and, after a kickoff return, the ball was moved back 20 yards. Field goals were prohibited. On a touchback, the ball was brought out to the 10-yard line instead of the 20.

If the ball went out of bounds, it was brought in just one yard from the sidelines under the rules in effect in 1932. Because of the proximity of the fence at Chicago Stadium, the teams agreed that the ball would be brought in 10 yards and the team in possession would have to forfeit a down. (Some accounts say 15 yards.)

Sportswriters generally expected the shortened field to produce a high-scoring game. The Bears were definitely favored, mainly because the Spartans were without their best player, Dutch Clark. A charter member of the Pro Football Hall of Fame, Clark was the quarterback on the All-Pro team six times in his eight-year NFL career. A dangerous runner, excellent kicker, and reliable passer, he led the league in scoring in 1932. But he had returned to his alma mater, Colorado College, as basketball coach immediately after Portsmouth’s victory over Green Bay and the school wouldn’t release him from his duties to play against the Bears.

Nevertheless, the Spartans pretty much controlled the first half, thanks to the running of Glenn Presnell. They were in scoring range twice and probably would have had a 6-0 halftime lead if field goals had been allowed. Near the end of the second quarter, Portsmouth faced fourth down at the Bears’ 6-yard line and Presnell carried the ball on the cutback play out of the single wing. As he tried to make his cut into the hole, he lost his footing on the loose dirt and went down without being touched. Presnell was certain that he would have scored if he hadn’t slipped.

But the game was still scoreless with about ten minutes left in the game, when Dick Nesbitt intercepted a pass thrown by Clark’s replacement, Ace Gutowsky, and returned it to Portsmouth’s 7-yard line, where he was pushed out of bounds. The ball was brought in 10 (or 15) yards from the sideline and the Bears were charged with a down, under the special rule. On second down, fullback Bronko Nagurski smashed down to the 1-yard line, but he lost a yard on the next play, bringing up fourth-and-goal at the 2. Once again, Nagurski took a handoff and headed toward the line. But he stopped before he got there, took a step or two backward, and threw a touchdown pass to Red Grange.

A furious Potsy Clark charged onto the field, protesting that Nagurski hadn’t been 5 yards behind the line of scrimmage when he threw the ball, as required at the time. But referee Bobby Cahn ruled that it was a legal forward pass and he allowed the touchdown, Tiny Engebretsen kicked the extra point to give the Bears a 7-0 lead. A little later, a bad snap went over the head of Portsmouth punter Mule Wilson and rolled through the end zone for a safety, making the final score 9-0.

Reports of attendance range from 11,000 to more than 15,000. The most reliable figure, though, seems to be 9,623 paid admissions, plus «several hundred Annie Oakleys,» meaning complimentary tickets. That number appeared in the Portsmouth Times and probably came directly from team management, based on the Spartans’ share of the gate receipts. Whatever the exact number, it was undoubtedly a lot more than would have turned out for a game in the snow and cold at Wrigley Field.

Each Chicago player was paid $240 and each Portsmouth player received $175 for the game, from receipts of about $15,000. The Bears had the full 22-man roster, but Portsmouth had only 16 players, so the players’ share was just over $8,000. Other expenses are unknown, but renting the stadium and getting it ready for a football game must have eaten up quite a lot of the other $7,000 or so.

Regardless of the financial outcome, though, the game was considered a success. At their meeting in Pittsburgh in February, 1933, NFL owners adopted three rules changes inspired by the championship game:

1. The ball was to be moved 10 yards in from the sideline after going out of bounds, without costing the offensive team a down, and hashmarks were added to the field.

2. The goalposts were moved from the end line to the goal line.

3. A forward pass was allowed from anywhere behind the line of scrimmage. (A still-disgruntled Potsy Clark reportedly said, «Nagurski will pass from anywhere, so we might as well make it legal,» when he voted for the change.)

Those changes helped to increase scoring and noticeably reduced ties. In 1932, only three of the NFL’s eight teams scored more than 100 points, led by the Bears with 160. The following season, five teams scored more than 100 points; the New York Giants led the way with a whopping 244 and the Packers were next with 170. The number of ties was cut in half, from 10 in 1932 to five in 1933.

At the urging of George Preston Marshall of the Boston Braves (now the Washington Redskins), owners decided at their July meeting to reorganize the NFL into Eastern and Western Divisions, with a post-season championship game between the division winners. Marshall reasoned that, since the impromptu championship game of 1932 had won unprecedented coverage for the league, an annual championship game would be a terrific showcase for professional football, like baseball’s World Series. Of course, that game has evolved into a nonpareil media event called the Super Bowl.

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