How Bitcoin Will Promote Latin American Growth

There has been much ado concerning Bitcoin and how authorities and businesses in China and the United States have reacted to it, but possibly more intriguing possibilities may lie ahead for this currency and other cryptocurrencies. The Wall Street Journal ran a piece a week ago about the obvious divide that exists in Latin America. The Atlantic facing countries have more command oriented economies while the Pacific facing countries, with the exception of Ecuador and Nicaragua, have more market-oriented economies. Latin America has become a continent of focus on a global scale with stifled European growth and an Asia-Pacific region that has already been welcomed into the global economic conversation. Alternative currencies will make their mark on Latin America and it will affect both sides in a different fashion. In the end, Bitcoin and Latin American Growth will go together as they both are in spotlight at the same time and cryptocurrencies (including Bitcoin) will afford Latin American businesses and entrepreneurs the opportunity to operate on a level playing field with the rest of the globe.

Notable State Oriented Economies of Latin America

  • Ecuador
  • Bolivia
  • Cuba
  • Brazil
  • Argentina
  • Nicaragua
  • Venezuela

These countries have economies that are more beholden to national interests. The most extreme state run economy on this list is Cuba, which has a Communist regime that has made slight concessions to economic liberalization. Venezuela has arguably the second most extreme state run economy and is in the midst of a socioeconomic and political crisis. Argentina has had its fair share of instability and command-oriented economic events courtesy of President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner including price controls, drama concerning possession of the Falkland Islands, inflation of 26%, police strikes, and the nationalization of YPF just to name a few measures. Brazil is always feared to resort to its old ways and currently there is still a great deal of red tape and taxation is comparatively higher than peers.

Notable Market-Oriented Economies of Latin America

  • Mexico
  • Colombia
  • Panama
  • Chile
  • Peru
  • Belize

Mexico’s efforts to attract and grow business is not just limited to Mexico City, but Guadalajara has been emphasized as a growth destination in the digital and tech space much like the way Bogota is the established economic powerhouse city in Colombia and Medellin has broken out a youthful, digital force. Mexico is currently the 14th largest economy and growing. Mexico is still plagued by the drug cartels as demand for drugs across the northern border still exists. Ciudad Juarez is plagued by cartel-induced violence, which is considered so bad that the Sun Bowl strongly discouraged visitors from traveling across the border as the college bowl game was an opportunity to promote both El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez for tourism and business.

Colombia still is combatting FARC, but it is clearly winning the battle after President Uribe’s term. FARC has been more limited to the jungle areas of Colombia. Active peace talks with FARC are also being negotiated to an extent. The Colombian economy has much room to grow in terms of agriculture, energy, finance, tourism, and digital technology.

Belize is actively courting Americans to purchase real estate in the country marketing their pristine beaches, tax policies, and English fluency. Belize has a lot more growing to do and it has to shake stigmas.

Chile is considered by the Heritage Foundation to be #1 in economic freedom in Latin America. Chile enjoys a trade surplus, a central bank policy rate of 4.5% that would be attractive to investors outside of Chile. Trading the Chilean Peso may be a worthy endeavor for those wishing to take advantage of the carry trade against countries/economic zones that have extremely low interest rates such as the United States, European Union, and Japan. Chile has low inflation and has policies that benefit not just copper exports, but other exports to help maintain the surplus. Morgan Stanley expects Chile, Peru, Colombia, and Mexico to grow on average 4.25% in 2014.

These countries are not facing looting outbreaks, fights over toilet paper, nor do they have leaders that are trying to escalate action against another country.

Bitcoin’s Impact on State-Oriented Economies

In all of these state-oriented economies, there are currency controls. Venezuela and Argentina are infamous for their price controls. Brazil’s government influence in the economy stems from their excessive influence, possible corruption issues, and inflationary concerns. Entrepreneurs, investors, and ordinary individuals will be looking to the marketplace to meet their needs. Rationing, red tape, high costs, and possible surveillance are associated with these state-oriented economies. Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies will meet the needs of many that have access to the internet.

Competing globally in countries that wish to be more insular comes with negative ramifications, but the usage of the internet and the ability to transact in a possibly untraced fashion in a global marketplace will enable competitive pricing for citizens to receive the goods and services needed. Venezuelans will be able to buy toilet paper from foreign sources without having to use a currency that is being grossly debased. Venezuelans will also have the opportunity to engage in entrepreneurship while still in Venezuela to fund their endeavors and possible defection to other countries such as Colombia. Over 26% of Venezuelans use the internet on a daily basis. Venezuela has not filtered the internet just yet and purchasing Bitcoin is far more secure than holding onto Bolivar.

Bitcoin usage could take the government’s tight grip on the economy away by rendering its presence useless by adopting the private currency. Less tax revenues can be collected, a populace that is armed financially and possibly literally (you could have bought anything on Silk Road), and decreased influence from political leaders and enforcers as cryptocurrency usage becomes viral. This thought process can be applied to Venezuela-lite in Argentina, which is an economy with a lot of potential.

The Brazilian economy could grow further by giving businesses more exposure overseas and overcoming the exotic sovereign currency issue. The World Cup in 2014 and Olympics in 2016 will put much pressure on the Brazilian economy to grow and keep up appearances. Lower transaction costs, currency familiarity, and nationality ambivalence with Bitcoin customers will help Brazilian firms seeking to do business outside of Brazil. With a large influx of tourists and business-people coming to Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, the acceptance of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies will remove the barriers of having to convert currencies and engage in secure purchases. Brazil may be a more command-oriented economy like Argentina, but global expectations and aspirations should push them away from past tendencies.

For the state-oriented economies, Bitcoin and its competitors offer greater freedom, monetary security, entrepreneurship opportunities, transaction security, and privacy. In the case of Venezuela, it could spark a change in governance much like the way social media was credited for bringing in the Arab Spring to life. Much of the problems surrounding Venezuela are economic in nature and the black market is a natural alternative. Prevention of seizure of assets by keeping them in a digital wallet in the cloud is far more secure than keeping funds in a bank regulated by the Venezuelan government.

Bitcoin’s Role in Economic Growth for the Pacific Countries

Entrepreneurship as described in the previous section is on a smaller level than what may be in Colombia, Mexico, Chile, and Peru. Colombia and Mexico have cities that have hopes to global players in the digital space. Attracting business from Europe, Canada, and the United States would be easier with lower exchange and transaction fees. Credit cards and PayPal place transaction fees on users wishing to make international transactions and this fee would be reduced.

Latin American outsourcing can experience growth as call centers, development and design firms, and independent contractors are able to not only competitively bid as they do now, but they would be able to accept Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies and this will drive in more business. It is not a fad, it is a matter of making an easier and cheaper transaction. Less barriers to making the purchase will make the sale and it will help Latin American businesses be able to be global, which can lead to Venture Capital growth.

Bitcoin will lead to greater international business transactions for Latin America and enable economic growth. The benefits are different for these countries as the need for stability is not pressing, but rather these countries have an insatiable appetite for growth. Entrepreneurship, competing globally, lower transaction fees, transactional security, competitive biddng, improved economic development, and changing perceptions are all benefits of adopting cryptocurrencies in these countries. A startup in Medellin or Cartagena can compete with a firm in Toronto and another firm in Indianapolis for a services contract. Removing the barriers of nationality from the transaction to focus solely on the services provided and costs involved are a major benefit.

Consumers win too in these countries as they would gain purchasing power because some items are more expensive in their domestic markets than foreign markets. Ex-pats and immigrants can send money to family members in their native country in a simple, inexpensive, quick, and secure fashion. This can help boost local economies.

Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies help make the world a smaller place just like the way air travel, the internet, telecommunications, and social media have done. Cryptocurrencies promote globalization and Bitcoin will help provide that opportunity to Latin America, which is eager to compete and grow in the global marketplace.

2011 Cricket World Cup

ICC Cricket World Cup 2011 will be the 10th World Cup. Prior to the 2011 Cup, 9 tournaments have been organized by ICC. This time matches will be played between Feb 19, 2011 – April 2, 2011 in India, Bangladesh & Srilanka.

Australia have emerged winner on the most occasions – 4. Closely following is West Indies, who won the inaugural and the very next title. All the Indian Subcontinent teams – India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka have won only once.

Australia won in 1987, 1999, 2003 and 2007. West Indies won on 1975 (the first WC) and 1979. India won in 1983, Pakistan won in 1992 and Sri Lanka won in 1996.

Cricket World Cup 2011 Venues includes: Bangalore, Mumbai, Kolkata, Mohali, Chennai, Nagpur, Ahmedabad, Colombo, Dhaka, Chittagong. And new venues like Pallekelle and Hambantota – both being in Sri Lanka.

World Cup 2011 teams: This Time 14 Teams are participating, divided in two Groups as follows:

Group A – Australia, Pakistan, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, Zimbabwe, Canada and Kenya.

Group B – India, South Africa, England, Bangladesh, West Indies, Netherlands and Ireland.

ICC Cricket World Cup 2011 Schedule: Sat Feb 19 – 08:30 GMT – 14:00 IST – India v Bangladesh at Shere Bangla National Stadium, Mirpur

Sun Feb 20 – 04:00 – 09:30 – Kenya v New Zealand at MA Chidambaram Stadium Chepauk, Chennai

Sun Feb 20 – 09:00 GMT – 14:30 IST – Sri Lanka v Canada at Mahinda Rajapaksha International Cricket Stadium, Sooriyawewa, Hambantota

Mon Feb 21 – 09:00 – 14:30 – Australia v Zimbabwe at Sardar Patel Stadium, Motera, Ahmedabad

Tue Feb 22 – 09:00 GMT – 14:30 IST – England v Netherlands at Vidarbha Cricket Association Ground, Nagpur

Wed Feb 23 – 09:00 – 14:30 – Kenya v Pakistan at Mahinda Rajapaksha International Cricket Stadium, Sooriyawewa, Hambantota

Thu Feb 24 – 09:00 – 14:30 – South Africa v West Indies at Feroz Shah Kotla, Delhi

Fri Feb 25 – 04:00 – 09:30 – Australia v New Zealand at Vidarbha Cricket Association Ground, Nagpur

Fri Feb 25 – 08:30 – 14:00 – Bangladesh v Ireland at Shere Bangla National Stadium, Mirpur

Sat Feb 26 – 09:00 – 14:30 – Sri Lanka v Pakistan at R Premadasa Stadium, Colombo

Sun Feb 27 – 09:00 – 14:30 – India v England at Eden Gardens, Kolkata Mon

Feb 28 – 04:00 – 09:30 – Canada v Zimbabwe at Vidarbha Cricket Association Ground, Nagpur

Mon Feb 28 – 09:00 – 14:30 – Netherlands v West Indies at Feroz Shah Kotla, Delhi

Tue Mar 1 – 09:00 – 14:30 – Sri Lanka v Kenya at R Premadasa Stadium, Colombo

Wed Mar 2 – 09:00 – 14:30 – England v Ireland at M Chinnaswamy Stadium, Bangalore

Thu Mar 3 – 04:00 – 09:30 – Netherlands v South Africa at Punjab Cricket Association Stadium, Mohali, Chandigarh

Wed Mar 30 09:00 – 14:30 – Semi Final – TBC v TBC at Punjab Cricket Association Stadium, Mohali, Chandigarh

Sat Apr 2 09:00 GMT – 14:30 IST – Final – TBC v TBC at Wankhede Stadium, Mumbai

What Happened In The UK In 1992?

Breaking 1992 down into the biggest political, sports and entertainment news; here’s what happened…

The queen had both an expensive and an embarrassing year; early on announcing that she would bow to public pressure and pay income tax (the first time a British monarch had done so for over 50 years) and, at the end of the year, having her Christmas speech leaked to and published in ‘The Sun’ ahead of the big day. It was also a bad year for Manchester after the IRA exploded two bombs in centre of the city; injuring 64 people and causing millions of pounds of damage.

Politically, the government, led by John Major, made themselves unpopular on two fronts, by firstly signing Britain up to the ‘Treaty on European Union’ (many saw this as a loss of Britain’s identity); then secondly announcing it’s plans to close a third of Britain’s deep coal mines, with the loss of 31,000 jobs.

In terms of sport, 1992 saw Barcelona hosting the Olympic Games; it being the first time in 20 years that every country had been present (with no boycotts or bans in places). Linford Christie was the star of the event by becoming the oldest ever Olympic 100m champion (at 32 years old!). The year also saw ‘The Football Association’ launch the new ‘Premier League’, no-one at the time quite realising the revolutionary effect that it would have on the game.

Entertainment wise, the quirky, fast paced breakfast TV programme ‘The Big Breakfast’ made its debut. There was plenty of chaos and disorder on the show; Chris Evans being the one to lead the fun, games and competitions. The BBC were far, far less successful with their attempt at entertaining the public with ‘Eldorado’. Focusing on a community of ex-pats living in a Spanish fishing village, it was slated for its wooden actors and uninspiring storylines (later to be axed after just one year).

The big movies of the year were ‘Wayne’s World’ and ‘Reservoir Dogs’. The first being about Wayne and Garth’s battling it out with a hot-shot TV producer to save their own low-budget TV show (and also win the heart of the lovely Cassandra!). The second being Quentin Tarantino’s story of a botched robbery and the hunting out of the ‘rat’ (was it Mr. White, Mr. Orange, Mr. Blonde, Mr. Pink, Mr. Brown or Mr. Blue?).

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Season 2010 – 2011 Soccer Teams Of the Year

Barcelona

Josep Guardiola has turned Barcelona into the best football club in Spain for the past couple of seasons. Real Madrid was top of the pile but recent seasons haven’t seen consistency at Madrid and Barcelona has triumphed. Barcelona are currently top of the Spanish La Liga by 5 points, ahead of Real Madrid. Barcelona earns many plaudits for the way the play the game, the ‘beautiful way’. With Xavi and Iniesta in the heart of the Barcelona midfield, they have two of the best passers of the game and they are the heart beat of the Barcelona side.

Xavi and Iniesta have been phenomenal this season, but as always, there is one man at Barcelona who always steals the show. Lionel Messi, 43 goals in 35 starts already this season is a phenomenal record. Lionel Messi is one of the best players in the world and possibly the best of this era. His ability to keep the ball away from defenders and to open up defences with his dribbling has the crowd on the edge of their seats throughout the game. Words can’t describe how good Messi is and his sensational form this season has seen the success of Barcelona this season, domestically in the La Liga and in the Champions League. Not only has Lionel Messi been in formidable form, but the recent acquisition of David Villa this season who has 21 goals in 36 games himself has seen the attacking threat of Barcelona prove too much for any side this season.

Not only does it help having two strikers that can create a goal from nothing, but they have a midfield that works tirelessly when off the ball that makes it very easy for Barcelona to defend as shown in the recent 4-3 aggregate win over Arsenal in the Champions League. Again they are favourites to win the Champions League despite being knocked out last year to Inter Milan, Barcelona brushed aside Arsenal at the Nou Camp and look unbeatable at home in the competition.

Not to mention that Barcelona play Real Madrid in the Spanish Cup final in April that they happen to be favourites for that as well. Barcelona’s attacking flair and ability to keep the ball in all circumstances under any amounts of pressure is the main attribute for their success. Puyol is the leader at the back for Barcelona and he’s been missing for a couple of months through injury but they still look resolute and assured in defence, emphasising the side Guardiola has formed to be labelled one of the best teams in world football.

Barcelona possesses 7 regular Spanish internationals that have won the European Championships (2008) and World Cup (2010) in succession to dominate the national competitions. These 7 internationals consisting of: Puyol, Pique, Xavi, Iniesta, Busquets, Pedro and David Villa, thrown in with Dani Alves, Lionel Messi, Eric Abidal and substitute Spanish keeper Victor Valdes, you’re inevitably going to get a squad that’s near enough perfection.

Real Madrid

Despite Barcelona’s dominance, Real Madrid have ran Barcelona close and have a superior side of their own which consists of the worlds superstars which came at a hefty price. Cristiano Ronaldo was signed for 80 million pounds, Kaka was purchased for 50 million pounds and Benzema was 30 million pounds. Oh, and combined with the signings of Mesut Ozil, Sami Khedira, Angel Di Maria and Xabi Alonso. The forward seven of the team that has been glued together with Iker Casillas, Pepe, Marcelo and Sergio Ramos, it’s obvious to say you’re going to have a team with ability in abundance.

Despite the list of megastars Real Madrid have at their disposal, Real Madrid have yet to really explode this season but nevertheless, they still have got a good chance of winning the treble this season. That statement sums up Real Madrid this season, despite not playing at full potential consistently; they’re still competing for 3 major trophies which is frightening for the clubs competing against them.

Jose Mourinho is in his first season at Real Madrid and his first in Spain. He has a big fixture coming up in the form of Lyon in the last 16 of the Champions League which astonishingly, they’ve been knocked out at this stage of the competition for the last 6 years running despite Real Madrid’s force. Jose Mourinho’s arrival in Real Madrid was very much with the Champions League in mind having won the competition with Inter Milan in the previous season.

Cristiano Ronaldo, a Champions League winner with Manchester United in 2010, will want to help carry the battle for Real Madrid and since his arrival in Spain he has been vital asset to the Galaticos. He has notched on average 1 goal every game for Real Madrid (53 goals in 55 games) which is an incredible start to his Madrid career. So far this season he has scored 28 in 26 and has 8 assists to his name in the La Liga to date that includes 5 hat tricks so far this season. Currently he is injured which is a big blow to Real Madrid if they want to progress in the Champions League and push for the La Liga title in Spain. Ronaldo’s overall game has been stated by many Football pundits to be the best in the world, with Ronaldo having the feet of the winger and finishing of a striker added with a very good ability to score goals with his head. All these fundamental parts of his game create a world class player.

Real Madrid has yet to gel together with all the world class players they have in one squad, but with Jose Mourinho’s impact on Real Madrid in full flight, it’s only a matter of time before the players and supporters unite as one and become the potent side that Real Madrid used to be in the days of Zidane and Figo.

Manchester United

Similarly to Real Madrid, Manchester United haven’t been at their superior best and not played at the standard they have done in previous seasons. Fortunately for Manchester United, other teams in the English Premiership have not maintained any consistency either and can’t compete against Manchester United’s ability to grind out results. Manchester United are currently 1st in the English Premiership and still in the Champions League as well as the FA cup semi-finals. This is despite having a particularly average season performance wise by Manchester United’s high standards.

A lot of Manchester United’s success this season has to go down to Sir Alex Ferguson. Despite being one of Manchester United’s weakest sides in his years at the club, he has still worked wonders with them this season. He has used Ryan Giggs and Paul Scholes so effectively this season for players that are at the age that are unable to compete competitively 2 times a week.

The dip in form of Wayne Rooney has seen other players around him step up to the mark and perform at their best which has also seen the success of Manchester United this season. Dimitar Berbatov has excelled massively this season and has already hit two hat tricks, against Liverpool and Blackburn respectively. Javier Hernandez has also been pivotal this season and has scored vital goals this season in what is his first season in English football. The Mexican striker signing for 7 million pounds this season has scored 16 goals so far, is one of the signings of the 2010/2011 season. Nani and Ryan Giggs have also been in exceptional form this season that has helped contribute to Manchester United’s results this season and they will need to carry that form on for several more weeks if they are to win that illusive 19th English Premiership title that will see them go past Liverpool’s record of 18 English Premiership titles.

Manchester United’s quality in depth has also been a strong reason for their success this season. The English side have been hit with unfortunate injuries this season too many of their leading stars. Rio Ferdinand has been hit and miss this season with injuries but Chris Smalling has been a revelation since signing from Fulham and definitely looks one for the future. Antonio Valencia’s unfortunate injury has seen Nani deliver consistency in his performances which has turned him into one of the best wingers currently due to being given much more match time than last season. Gary Neville’s long term replacement, Rafael has come on leaps and bounds since the start of the season which saw Neville lose his place to the young Brazilian and recently the former England international retired from football. Rafael is now ever present in the Manchester United side.

Tottenham

Tottenham have exploded on the European scene this season, and people in Milan won’t need reminding. Tottenham were desperately unlucky to lose in the group stage 4-3 to Inter Milan with Gareth Bale hitting a hat trick at the San Siro. Tottenham beat them in the home tie and also recently knocked out AC Milan in the knockout rounds of the Champions League to progress to the last eight of the competition.

The success has been down to a number of different aspects of the club that have been significantly improved to make Tottenham one of best sides in England. They have found a consistent manager in Harry Redknapp and is regarded as one of the best managers in England. He has helped stabilise the club and has brought the best out of all his players. His wheeling and dealing in the market has also provided Tottenham with one of the strongest sides in the English Premiership in depth. With Niko Kranjcar, Roman Pavlyuchenko and a host of other stars finding it hard to break into the side proves how strong the Tottenham side is.

Tottenham have been helped by one of the best players in the world this season. The vast improvement of Gareth Bale this season has earned him many plaudits and deservedly so. Gareth Bale’s performances this season are right up there with Lionel Messi this campaign and he has been speculated about in national newspapers about possible moves to Manchester United or Inter Milan. The left sided midfielder is already in double figures this season and has set up numerous goals for his side; his hat trick against Inter Milan at the San Siro has been one of the highlights of the football season.

Not only has Gareth Bale been in great form this season, but Rafael Van Der Vaart’s first season in English football has been priceless. Van Der Vaart was signed by Redknapp for a bargain 8 million pounds, one of the best signings of Tottenham’s history. Van Der Vaart has been a shrewd signing by Redknapp, playing just off the front man he has revelled in the role and has been one of Tottenham’s best players this season. Not only the form of Van Der Vaart and Bale, but Luka Modric has also been very impressive this season, dictating the way Tottenham play. Tottenham have the perfect balance of creativity and aggression in midfield with the Modric – Palacios combination.

Borussia Dortmund

Nine points clear at the top of the German Bundesliga see’s Dortmund the certain favourites to take the title this season. Despite a poor season in the Europa League, Dortmund have came out triumphant in the German Bundesliga, taking usual title challengers Bayern Munich and Bayer Leverkusen by storm. If they go on to win the league, it will be the clubs first major silverware for 13 years, and completely taking the league by shock which they deserve to win with their performances this season.

The Dortmund squad have a fantastic team spirit and always keep the club’s off the field problems under wraps keeping a close harmony at the club. They are very discrete with no natural ‘stand out’ players, there aren’t any players who think their too big for the club which makes the squad solid as a unit and a togetherness at the club. Dortmund has some of the brightest prospects coming up at the club in Mats Hummels and Neven Subotic. The pair has formed a superb partnership at the heart of the defence for Dortmund which has seen them concede a mere 15 goals in 26 games, the best defence in the league by 18 goals.

Dortmund have already done the double over Bayern Munich and despite losing to Leverkusen on the opening day of the season at home, Dortmund later got revenge on Leverkusen by beating them at Leverkusen’s ground 2-0. This proves that they are one of the best clubs in Germany at present, not only just beating the teams who are struggling this season but getting good results against the best teams in Germany.

The key now for Dortmund is hanging onto these players and maintaining such a good season and carrying it onto next season and in the Champions League next season which seems a certainty in the position they are currently in. No doubt the top European clubs will be looking to get Hummels and Subotic on their books so they will need backing financially to help keep hold of their assets. Attacking midfielder Shinji Kagawa has already been linked with Manchester United in the January transfer window having scored an impressive 12 goals in 25 games from midfield this season.

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FC Barcelona Facts – History of Spanish Giants

FC Barcelona, one of the world’s richest and most successful clubs, has a rich history and a culture that is synonymous with the Catalonian part of Spain. Founded in 1899 by a group of English, Swiss and Spanish footballers led by Joan Gamper, the club has grown in stature with every passing day since its inception and managed to achieve the highest stature in club football by winning all the trophies that is possible by the side to win. Here are a few more interesting FC Barcelona facts for the readers’ digest.

Since its inception, the club has won many trophies in both domestic and big competitions. Barcelona has been a club with arguably the best forward line in modern football. Back in 1910 when the club was relatively new and was full of players unknown and no fan following, they used to play matches with local clubs. It was back in the same year when they participated in the first ever UEFA competition. This was followed by a collaboration with the Football Association of Spain. Barton along with a host of other clubs propounded the theory of inventing and creating a new league for the top tier of Spanish football where teams would participate and the ultimate winner would be the best club of Spain.

Barcelona along with Atletic Bilbao and arch rivals Real Madrid remain the only 3 teams till date to have never been relegated from the top tier of Spanish football. Barcelona always has a political history as the club considered to be the heart of Catalonia, which had been an area of disturbance in Spain as the region openly resisted the policies set by the Capital of Spain, Madrid. Catalonia has always been a part of Spain and it was during the late 2000 when the Spanish government allowed Catalonia to break away from Spain and create their own state. Barcelona, till date, has won a sextet and ten Champions League trophies which is in itself a big feat.

Barcelona saw real progress back in 1978 when Nunez was appointed as the president of the club. His main objective was to make Barcelona a world-class team and a brand throughout the world. He remained at the club for 22 years and had set stringent wage policies to make sure that no Ayer becomes bigger than the club itself. He let go of star players likes of Romario, Ronaldo and Maradona just because he would not meet the unrealistic demands set by them back then. The team became invincible under the leadership of Johan Cruyff as he built a dream team consisting of a core of Spanish and English players like Pep Guardiola and Ronald Koeman.

The Barcelona team became a dream team and Cruyff’s tactics was highly appreciated as he would bring the ideology of introducing total foot for the first team in the game. After the resignation of Nunez as president, the La Porter saw the club decline further. They won back their lost glory in 2008 when the club came back to the mainframe with the signing of Brazilian superstar Ronaldinho who decimated Real Madrid single-handedly. What followed after being the exponential meteoric rise of Lionel Messi through the amateur ranks at the club and it went on to win the Champions League along with La Liga and the Copa del Ray.

The club is ranked among the richest club in the world with a net property of nearly 2 billion pounds. Barcelona is a club to be feared and continues to hold the legendary status.

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